Cardiac arrest is the sudden, complete cessation of cardiac output Cardiac output The volume of blood passing through the heart per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with stroke volume (volume per beat). Cardiac Mechanics with hemodynamic collapse. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present as pulseless, unresponsive, and apneic. Rhythms associated with cardiac arrest are ventricular fibrillation Ventricular fibrillation Ventricular fibrillation (VF or V-fib) is a type of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (> 300/min) often preceded by ventricular tachycardia. In this arrhythmia, the ventricle beats rapidly and sporadically. The ventricular contraction is uncoordinated, leading to a decrease in cardiac output and immediate hemodynamic collapse. Ventricular Fibrillation (V-fib)/ tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children, asystole, or pulseless electrical activity. The treatment of cardiac arrest begins with basic life support Basic Life Support Airway Management ( BLS BLS Airway Management) when out-of-hospital and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) when in-hospital. Basic life support Basic Life Support Airway Management comprises checking the patient’s mental status, activating the emergency response system, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation Resuscitation The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. . Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CPR). An automated external defibrillator ( AED AED Cardiac electrical stimulators that apply brief high-voltage electroshocks to the heart. These stimulators are used to restore normal rhythm and contractile function in hearts of patients who are experiencing ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia that is not accompanied by a palpable pulse. Some defibrillators may also be used to correct certain noncritical dysrhythmias (called synchronized defibrillation or cardioversion), using relatively low-level discharges synchronized to the patient's ECG waveform. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)) should be used once available. High-quality CPR (with early defibrillation Defibrillation Ventricular Fibrillation (V-fib) in shockable rhythms) is crucial to survival in cardiac arrest. Advanced cardiac life support includes CPR, securing the airway Airway ABCDE Assessment, administering medications (such as epinephrine Epinephrine The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. Sympathomimetic Drugs), and identifying and treatment of the cause of cardiac arrest. Post-cardiac arrest care follows return of spontaneous circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment (ROSC).
Last updated: 16 Jun, 2022
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the abrupt cessation of cardiac activity.
The 5 Hs HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars and 5 Ts of the common reversible causes of SCA:
Four major cardiac rhythms are associated with SCA. These rhythms are divided into shockable and non-shockable rhythms.
Shockable rhythms are usually caused by primary cardiac disease (most commonly ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage). Less commonly, they are caused by systemic conditions (electrolyte disturbances, toxins, autoimmunity Autoimmunity Autoimmunity is a pathologic immune response toward self-antigens, resulting from a combination of factors: immunologic, genetic, and environmental. The immune system is equipped with self-tolerance, allowing immune cells such as T cells and B cells to recognize self-antigens and to not mount a reaction against them. Defects in this mechanism, along with environmental triggers (such as infections) and genetic susceptibility factors (most notable of which are the HLA genes) can lead to autoimmune diseases. Autoimmunity).
Circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment, airway Airway ABCDE Assessment, breath is the advanced cardiac life support mantra. Since 2010, management has focused on starting chest compressions Chest Compressions Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) first to address circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment, then airway Airway ABCDE Assessment access and rescue breathing Rescue Breathing Drowning.
The following conditions are causes of cardiac arrest:
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