Achieve Mastery of Medical Concepts

Study for medical school and boards with Lecturio

Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance from noncarbohydrate precursors. This metabolic pathway is more than just a reversal of glycolysis Glycolysis Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway responsible for the breakdown of glucose and plays a vital role in generating free energy for the cell and metabolites for further oxidative degradation. Glucose primarily becomes available in the blood as a result of glycogen breakdown or from its synthesis from noncarbohydrate precursors (gluconeogenesis) and is imported into cells by specific transport proteins. Glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis provides the body with glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance not obtained from food, such as during a fasting period. The production of glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance is critical for organs and cells that cannot use fat for fuel. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis Glycogenolysis The release of glucose from glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase before entering glycolysis. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by glucagon or epinephrine via the activation of phosphorylase kinase. Glycogen Metabolism are the 2 major ways the body produces glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance. Key enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body's constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes for gluconeogenesis are pyruvate Pyruvate Derivatives of pyruvic acid, including its salts and esters. Glycolysis carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis carboxykinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Thus, gluconeogenesis becomes the main source of glycemic maintenance after glycogen stores are depleted.

Last updated: Sep 12, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Reactions of Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis precursors include lactate, glycerol, alanine Alanine A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids, and glutamine Glutamine A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia. It is the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and is an important energy source for many cells. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids. This process occurs in multiple locations, beginning in the mitochondria Mitochondria Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs; amino Acyl tRNA synthetases; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. The Cell: Organelles but finishing with the shuttling of glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance into the cytoplasm via glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance transporters.

Gluconeogenesis is the opposite of glycolysis Glycolysis Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway responsible for the breakdown of glucose and plays a vital role in generating free energy for the cell and metabolites for further oxidative degradation. Glucose primarily becomes available in the blood as a result of glycogen breakdown or from its synthesis from noncarbohydrate precursors (gluconeogenesis) and is imported into cells by specific transport proteins. Glycolysis. There are 11 enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes, or steps, required for the complete process of gluconeogenesis.

There are 3 irreversible steps that need to happen in gluconeogenesis. These steps are catalyzed by:

  • Glucose-6-phosphatase
  • Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis carboxykinase

11 steps:

  • Steps 1 and 2: pyruvate Pyruvate Derivatives of pyruvic acid, including its salts and esters. Glycolysis to phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis
    • Pyruvate Pyruvate Derivatives of pyruvic acid, including its salts and esters. Glycolysis is carboxylated to oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle via pyruvate Pyruvate Derivatives of pyruvic acid, including its salts and esters. Glycolysis carboxylase; this step must occur in the mitochondria Mitochondria Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs; amino Acyl tRNA synthetases; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. The Cell: Organelles.
    • The 1st step requires 1 molecule of ATP.
    • Pyruvate Pyruvate Derivatives of pyruvic acid, including its salts and esters. Glycolysis carboxylase is stimulated by high amounts of acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle and inhibited by ADP and glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance.
    • Oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle is decarboxylated and phosphorylated to phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis via phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis carboxykinase (PEPCK).
    • PEPCK requires 1 molecule of guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
  • Steps 3–8: phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Glycolysis
    • These steps are identical, though in reverse, to the reactions that occur in glycolysis Glycolysis Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway responsible for the breakdown of glucose and plays a vital role in generating free energy for the cell and metabolites for further oxidative degradation. Glucose primarily becomes available in the blood as a result of glycogen breakdown or from its synthesis from noncarbohydrate precursors (gluconeogenesis) and is imported into cells by specific transport proteins. Glycolysis.
  • Step 9: dephosphorylation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Glycolysis to fructose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate Glycolysis
    • The enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase to form fructose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate Glycolysis
    • Consumes 1 molecule of water
    • Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is the rate-limiting step of gluconeogenesis.
  • Step 10: fructose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate Glycolysis to glucose-6-phosphate via phosphoglucoisomerase
  • Step 11: glucose-6-phosphate to glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance
    • Consumes 1 molecule of water
    • Glucose-6-phosphatase is the enzyme that carries out this reaction.
    • Releases 1 inorganic phosphate Phosphate Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid. Electrolytes
    • This step occurs in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum A system of cisternae in the cytoplasm of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (cell membrane) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced; otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced. The Cell: Organelles.
Gluconeogenesis as the reverse of glycolysis

Gluconeogenesis as the reverse of glycolysis Glycolysis Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway responsible for the breakdown of glucose and plays a vital role in generating free energy for the cell and metabolites for further oxidative degradation. Glucose primarily becomes available in the blood as a result of glycogen breakdown or from its synthesis from noncarbohydrate precursors (gluconeogenesis) and is imported into cells by specific transport proteins. Glycolysis:
Note the key enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes that are unique to gluconeogenesis: PEP PEP A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance 6-phosphatase.

Image by Lecturio.

Location of Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis occurs in organs that have high energy requirements. 

  • Gluconeogenesis happens in the human liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy, kidney, muscle, and intestinal mucosa Intestinal Mucosa Lining of the intestines, consisting of an inner epithelium, a middle lamina propria, and an outer muscularis mucosae. In the small intestine, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (enterocytes) with microvilli. Small Intestine: Anatomy.
  • Within a cell, mitochondria Mitochondria Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs; amino Acyl tRNA synthetases; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. The Cell: Organelles convert pyruvate Pyruvate Derivatives of pyruvic acid, including its salts and esters. Glycolysis into oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle.
  • Oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle can convert to phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis in the mitochondria Mitochondria Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs; amino Acyl tRNA synthetases; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. The Cell: Organelles or cytoplasm.
    • If conversion occurs in the mitochondria Mitochondria Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs; amino Acyl tRNA synthetases; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. The Cell: Organelles, transport proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis carry phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis into the cytoplasm.
    • If conversion occurs in the cytoplasm, oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle must first be converted into malate for transit into the cytoplasm.
  • The cytosol Cytosol A cell’s cytoskeleton is a network of intracellular protein fibers that provides structural support, anchors organelles, and aids intra- and extracellular movement. The Cell: Cytosol and Cytoskeleton houses the enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes that convert phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis into glucose-6-phosphate.
Gluconeogensis diagram

Oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle must be converted into malate before transit from the mitochondrion into the cytoplasm
ATP: adenosine Adenosine A nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter. Class 5 Antiarrhythmic Drugs triphosphate
CO2: carbon dioxide
GTP: guanosine triphosphate
NAD NAD+ A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5′-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5′-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). Pentose Phosphate Pathway/NADH: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5′-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5′-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). Pentose Phosphate Pathway
PEP PEP A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis: phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate A monocarboxylic acid anion derived from selective deprotonation of the carboxy group of phosphoenolpyruvic acid. It is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis; gluconeogenesis; and other pathways. Glycolysis

Image by Lecturio.

Stimulation and Inhibition

There are several points of regulation for gluconeogenesis.

  • 3 enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes are key regulatory points:
    • Glucose-6-phosphatase
    • Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
    • PEPCK
  • Activating substrates:
    • Acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle
    • ATP
    • Citrate
    • Glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions: promotes phosphorylation Phosphorylation The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety. Post-translational Protein Processing of enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes via protein kinase A Protein kinase A A group of enzymes that are dependent on cyclic amp and catalyze the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-amp-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition. Glycogen Metabolism (PKA)
  • Inhibition:
    • Insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin 
    • Metformin Metformin A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. Non-insulinotropic Diabetes Drugs
  • Phosphofructokinase 2 synthesizes fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which inhibits gluconeogenesis and promotes glycolysis Glycolysis Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway responsible for the breakdown of glucose and plays a vital role in generating free energy for the cell and metabolites for further oxidative degradation. Glucose primarily becomes available in the blood as a result of glycogen breakdown or from its synthesis from noncarbohydrate precursors (gluconeogenesis) and is imported into cells by specific transport proteins. Glycolysis. Low cAMP cAMP An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3′- and 5′-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and acth. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors levels promote phosphofructokinase 2 activity.
  • In general, activators and inhibitors of gluconeogenesis serve the opposite role in the regulation of glycolysis Glycolysis Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway responsible for the breakdown of glucose and plays a vital role in generating free energy for the cell and metabolites for further oxidative degradation. Glucose primarily becomes available in the blood as a result of glycogen breakdown or from its synthesis from noncarbohydrate precursors (gluconeogenesis) and is imported into cells by specific transport proteins. Glycolysis.

Clinical Relevance

  • Galactosemia Galactosemia Galactosemia is a disorder caused by defects in galactose metabolism. Galactosemia is an inherited, autosomal-recessive condition, which results in inadequate galactose processing and high blood levels of monosaccharide. The rare disorder often presents in infants with symptoms of lethargy, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. Galactosemia: defective metabolism of the sugar galactose Galactose An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the d-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase causes an error in galactose metabolism called galactosemia, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood. Lactose Intolerance. Clinical manifestations begin when milk feeding is started. Infants develop lethargy Lethargy A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to depression or drug addiction. Hyponatremia, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, progressive liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy dysfunction, kidney disease, cataracts, weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, and susceptibility to bacterial infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (especially E coli). Intellectual disability Disability Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for social security and workman’s compensation benefits. ABCDE Assessment may develop if the disorder is left untreated. The mainstay of management is exclusion of galactose Galactose An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the d-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase causes an error in galactose metabolism called galactosemia, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood. Lactose Intolerance from the diet.
  • Hereditary fructose intolerance Hereditary fructose intolerance An autosomal recessive fructose metabolism disorder due to deficient fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity, resulting in accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. The accumulated fructose-1-phosphate inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, causing severe hypoglycemia following ingestion of fructose. Prolonged fructose ingestion in infants leads ultimately to hepatic failure and death. Patients develop a strong distaste for sweet food, and avoid a chronic course of the disease by remaining on a fructose- and sucrose-free diet. Disorders of Fructose Metabolism: deficiency of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase Aldolase Becker Muscular Dystrophy. Symptoms begin after ingestion of fructose (fruit sugar) or sucrose so presents later in life. Presents with failure to gain weight, vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia, liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy dysfunction, and kidney defects. Children with the disorder do very well if they avoid dietary fructose and sucrose.
  • Fructose 1,6-diphosphatase deficiency: associated with impaired gluconeogenesis. Symptoms include hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia, intolerance to fasting, and hepatomegaly. Emergent treatment of hypoglycemic episodes with glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance rich IV fluids IV fluids Intravenous fluids are one of the most common interventions administered in medicine to approximate physiologic bodily fluids. Intravenous fluids are divided into 2 categories: crystalloid and colloid solutions. Intravenous fluids have a wide variety of indications, including intravascular volume expansion, electrolyte manipulation, and maintenance fluids. Intravenous Fluids and avoidance of fasting are the mainstays of therapy. Severe cases may require glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance supplementation to avoid hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is an emergency condition defined as a serum glucose level ≤ 70 mg/dL (≤ 3.9 mmol/L) in diabetic patients. In nondiabetic patients, there is no specific or defined limit for normal serum glucose levels, and hypoglycemia is defined mainly by its clinical features. Hypoglycemia.
  • Glycogen storage diseases Glycogen Storage Diseases A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement. Benign Liver Tumors: deficiency of enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes responsible for glycogen degradation. Depending upon which enzyme is affected, these conditions may affect the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy, muscles, or both. There are several clinically significant glycogen storage diseases Glycogen Storage Diseases A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement. Benign Liver Tumors with differing presentations. 
  • Glucose 6-Phosphate Glucose 6-phosphate An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. Glycolysis dehydrogenase deficiency ( G6PD G6PD Pentose Phosphate Pathway): a genetic disorder that occurs almost exclusively in males and mainly affects red blood cells Red blood cells Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology, causing hemolysis and hemolytic anemia Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia (HA) is the term given to a large group of anemias that are caused by the premature destruction/hemolysis of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can occur within (intravascular hemolysis) or outside the blood vessels (extravascular hemolysis). Hemolytic Anemia. Symptoms include dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia, tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children, dark urine, palor, and jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice. Hemolytic anemia Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia (HA) is the term given to a large group of anemias that are caused by the premature destruction/hemolysis of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can occur within (intravascular hemolysis) or outside the blood vessels (extravascular hemolysis). Hemolytic Anemia may be triggered by infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, certain drugs (antibiotics,  antimalarials), and after eating fava beans.

References

  1. Miyamoto, T, & Amrein, H. (2017). Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist, Fly, 11:3, 218–223. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28121487/
  2. Exton, JH. (1972). Gluconeogenesis. 21(10):945–990. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(72)90028-5.
  3. Chourpiliadis, C, Mohiuddin, SS. (2020). Biochemistry, gluconeogenesis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544346/

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Create your free account or log in to continue reading!

Sign up now and get free access to Lecturio with concept pages, medical videos, and questions for your medical education.

User Reviews

¡Hola!

Esta página está disponible en Español.

Details