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Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a benign Benign Fibroadenoma uterine condition characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Adenomyosis is a common condition, affecting 20%–35% of women, and typically presents with heavy menstrual bleeding Heavy menstrual bleeding Excessive menstrual blood loss (objectively defined as > 80 mL blood loss/cycle). Can be based on heavy flow, as determined by the patient Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Diagnosis is often made with pelvic imaging. Usually, transvaginal ultrasound Transvaginal Ultrasound Obstetric Imaging is adequate, though MRI can be helpful in indeterminate cases. Management is based on the patient’s preference regarding future childbearing and may include hysterectomy (definitive treatment), other surgical options, or medical hormonal suppression Suppression Defense Mechanisms (usually with progestins Progestins Compounds that interact with progesterone receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of progesterone. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the uterus and the mammary gland in preparation for and in maintenance of pregnancy. Hormonal Contraceptives).

Last updated: Dec 10, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Adenomyosis is the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma located within the myometrium:

  • May be diffuse or focal (discrete lesions are known as adenomyomas)
  • 1 of the structural causes of abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym PALM-COEIN, with PALM representing the structural causes and COEIN indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding ( AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding) in the PALM-COEIN PALM-COEIN Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding classification structure
Causes of aub

Classification of abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym PALM-COEIN, with PALM representing the structural causes and COEIN indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and its causes

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Epidemiology

  • Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: up to 20%–35% of reproductive-age women 
  • Average age: 40–50 years 
  • Often coexists with other uterine pathology, especially:
    • Leiomyomas ( fibroids Fibroids A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the uterus and the gastrointestinal tract but can occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues. Infertility)
    • Endometriosis Endometriosis Endometriosis is a common disease in which patients have endometrial tissue implanted outside of the uterus. Endometrial implants can occur anywhere in the pelvis, including the ovaries, the broad and uterosacral ligaments, the pelvic peritoneum, and the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. Endometriosis

Etiology

The exact etiology is unknown.

  • Theories: 
    • Invagination or disruption around the junctional zone, allowing endometrial proliferation within the myometrium
    • As an embryo Embryo The entity of a developing mammal, generally from the cleavage of a zygote to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the fetus. Fertilization and First Week, pluripotent Müllerian stem cells undergo inappropriate differentiation (some differentiate into endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development within the myometrium).
  • Hormone effects:
    • Estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy:
      • Endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development is stimulated by estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy.
      • Estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment → ↑ adenomyosis
    • Other hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types that may play a role:
      • Prolactin Prolactin A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis. It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kd. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Breasts: Anatomy
      • Oxytocin
      • Follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH FSH A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis. Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates gametogenesis and the supporting cells such as the ovarian granulosa cells, the testicular sertoli cells, and leydig cells. Fsh consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity. Menstrual Cycle)
  • Other potential factors:

Risk factors

  • Estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment:
    • Parity Parity The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with gravidity, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care
    • Early menarche Menarche The first menstrual cycle marked by the initiation of menstruation. Menstrual Cycle
    • Short menstrual cycles
    • Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity
    • Tamoxifen Tamoxifen One of the selective estrogen receptor modulators with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the endometrium. Antiestrogens use
    • Oral contraception pill ( OCP OCP Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both. Benign Liver Tumors) use
  • Prior uterine surgery:
    • Cesarean section
    • Dilation and curettage Curettage A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. Benign Bone Tumors
    • Myomectomy

Pathophysiology

Inappropriate endometrial tissue Endometrial tissue The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Endometriosis proliferation within the myometrium can lead to heavy menstrual bleeding Heavy menstrual bleeding Excessive menstrual blood loss (objectively defined as > 80 mL blood loss/cycle). Can be based on heavy flow, as determined by the patient Abnormal Uterine Bleeding ( HMB HMB Excessive menstrual blood loss (objectively defined as > 80 mL blood loss/cycle). Can be based on heavy flow, as determined by the patient Abnormal Uterine Bleeding) and dysmenorrhea.

Pathophysiology of HMB HMB Excessive menstrual blood loss (objectively defined as > 80 mL blood loss/cycle). Can be based on heavy flow, as determined by the patient Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

  • Estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy production within adenomyosis implants
  • ↑ Total endometrial surface area 
  • ↑ Vascularization within the uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy
  • Abnormal uterine contractions

Pathophysiology of dysmenorrhea

  • Endometrial tissue Endometrial tissue The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Endometriosis is responsible for prostaglandin production → ↑ prostaglandins Prostaglandins A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes. Eicosanoids trigger Trigger The type of signal that initiates the inspiratory phase by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation menstrual contractions 
  • Bleeding and swelling Swelling Inflammation within the myometrium during menses Menses The periodic shedding of the endometrium and associated menstrual bleeding in the menstrual cycle of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating progesterone, and occurs at the late luteal phase when luteolysis of the corpus luteum takes place. Menstrual Cycle as the ectopic endometrial tissue Endometrial tissue The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Endometriosis sheds
  • Overexpression of inflammatory mediators within implants

Clinical Presentation

Symptoms

  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym PALM-COEIN, with PALM representing the structural causes and COEIN indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding/ heavy menstrual bleeding Heavy menstrual bleeding Excessive menstrual blood loss (objectively defined as > 80 mL blood loss/cycle). Can be based on heavy flow, as determined by the patient Abnormal Uterine Bleeding ( AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding/ HMB HMB Excessive menstrual blood loss (objectively defined as > 80 mL blood loss/cycle). Can be based on heavy flow, as determined by the patient Abnormal Uterine Bleeding)
  • Chronic pelvic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
  • Dyspareunia Dyspareunia Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after sexual intercourse in either the male or the female. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
  • May be asymptomatic (up to 33% of women)

Physical exam

Physical exam may reveal a uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy that is:

  • Symmetrically enlarged
  • Tender
  • Globular
  • Boggy
  • Mobile (as opposed to fixed, which may occur with endometriosis Endometriosis Endometriosis is a common disease in which patients have endometrial tissue implanted outside of the uterus. Endometrial implants can occur anywhere in the pelvis, including the ovaries, the broad and uterosacral ligaments, the pelvic peritoneum, and the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. Endometriosis)

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Diagnosis

The diagnosis relies on history, exam, and imaging. Laboratory evaluation is not helpful.

Pelvic/ transvaginal ultrasound Transvaginal Ultrasound Obstetric Imaging 

  • Considered the preferred imaging modality
  • The following findings are suggestive of adenomyosis:
    • Enlarged uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy
    • Myometrial cysts Cysts Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an epithelium. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues. Fibrocystic Change
    • Asymmetrical thickening of the myometrium (typically at the fundus Fundus The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch. Stomach: Anatomy or posterior wall)
    • ↑ Myometrial heterogeneity
    • Loss of a clear endomyometrial border
    • Thickening of the junctional zone
    • Linear striations radiating out from the endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development
    • Doppler Doppler Ultrasonography applying the doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. Ultrasound (Sonography) assessment shows ↑ vascularity in the myometrium.
Adenomyosis in infertile women

Transvaginal ultrasound Transvaginal Ultrasound Obstetric Imaging demonstrating a uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy with adenomyosis:
A: ultrasounds of normal uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy
B: ultrasound images in a patient with adenomyosis: Notice the asymmetric thickening of the myometrium, particularly posteriorly. The arrows point to the junctional zone, which appears thickened and irregular.

Image: “Evaluation of the junction zone” by J. M. Puente. License: CC BY 4.0

Pelvic MRI

  • Slightly more sensitive and specific than pelvic ultrasound
  • Rarely required
  • Indications:
    • When an accurate diagnosis will change management
    • Assist in surgical planning when uterus-sparing surgery is planned
  • Findings: same as those seen on ultrasound
Adenomyosis mri

Pelvic MRI of a uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy with adenomyosis:
This MRI shows thickening of the junctional zone, which is most marked posteriorly (arrow). Several small cystic Cystic Fibrocystic Change spaces can be seen within it.

Image: “ Sagittal Sagittal Computed Tomography (CT) T2W MRI image” by Department of Radiology, Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7UY, United Kingdom. License: CC BY 2.0

Management and Complications

Management

Management is directed primarily by the patient’s desire for future fertility.

  • Non-hormonal medical therapies:
  • Hormonal therapies: ↓ estrogenic effects
    • Levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of progesterone and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (norgestrel). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis. Hormonal Contraceptives intrauterine devices Intrauterine devices Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus. Hormonal Contraceptives ( IUDs IUDs Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus. Hormonal Contraceptives): preferred medical treatment
    • Oral contraceptives (all are progestin dominant)
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Gonadotropin-releasing hormone A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. Gnrh is produced by neurons in the septum preoptic area of the hypothalamus and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. Puberty (GnRH) analogs: 
    • Danazol Danazol A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders. Antiestrogens (an androgen, rarely used due to androgenic side effects)
    • Aromatase inhibitors Aromatase inhibitors Compounds that inhibit aromatase in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones. Antiestrogens
  • Surgical options: All require completion of child-bearing.
    • Hysterectomy
      • Definitive treatment
      • Best option once childbearing is complete
      • Histology specimens will confirm the diagnosis.
    • Endometrial ablation
    • Uterine artery Uterine Artery A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy embolization Embolization A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and intracranial arteriovenous malformations, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Complications

  • Correlates with a ↑ risk of infertility Infertility Infertility is the inability to conceive in the context of regular intercourse. The most common causes of infertility in women are related to ovulatory dysfunction or tubal obstruction, whereas, in men, abnormal sperm is a common cause. Infertility (a direct association has not been established)
  • ↑ Risk of pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care complications:
    • Miscarriage Miscarriage Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the loss of a pregnancy before 20 weeks’ gestation. However, the layperson use of the term “abortion” is often intended to refer to induced termination of a pregnancy, whereas “miscarriage” is preferred for spontaneous loss. Spontaneous Abortion
    • Preterm birth Preterm birth Preterm labor refers to regular uterine contractions leading to cervical change prior to 37 weeks of gestation; preterm birth refers to birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation. Preterm birth may be spontaneous due to preterm labor, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), or cervical insufficiency. Preterm Labor and Birth

Differential Diagnosis

  • Endometriosis Endometriosis Endometriosis is a common disease in which patients have endometrial tissue implanted outside of the uterus. Endometrial implants can occur anywhere in the pelvis, including the ovaries, the broad and uterosacral ligaments, the pelvic peritoneum, and the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. Endometriosis: a common disease in which patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship have endometrial tissue Endometrial tissue The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Endometriosis implanted outside the uterus Uterus The uterus, cervix, and fallopian tubes are part of the internal female reproductive system. The uterus has a thick wall made of smooth muscle (the myometrium) and an inner mucosal layer (the endometrium). The most inferior portion of the uterus is the cervix, which connects the uterine cavity to the vagina. Uterus, Cervix, and Fallopian Tubes: Anatomy (anywhere in the pelvis Pelvis The pelvis consists of the bony pelvic girdle, the muscular and ligamentous pelvic floor, and the pelvic cavity, which contains viscera, vessels, and multiple nerves and muscles. The pelvic girdle, composed of 2 “hip” bones and the sacrum, is a ring-like bony structure of the axial skeleton that links the vertebral column with the lower extremities. Pelvis: Anatomy). Endometrial implants Endometrial Implants Endometriosis are inflammatory, leading to cyclic, chronic pain Chronic pain Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain. Pain Management, adhesions, and an increased risk of infertility Infertility Infertility is the inability to conceive in the context of regular intercourse. The most common causes of infertility in women are related to ovulatory dysfunction or tubal obstruction, whereas, in men, abnormal sperm is a common cause. Infertility. The diagnosis is usually made clinically, though definitive diagnosis requires laparoscopy Laparoscopy Laparoscopy is surgical exploration and interventions performed through small incisions with a camera and long instruments. Laparotomy and Laparoscopy. Lab work is rarely useful. Standard management involves suppression Suppression Defense Mechanisms of endometrial growth with progestins Progestins Compounds that interact with progesterone receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of progesterone. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the uterus and the mammary gland in preparation for and in maintenance of pregnancy. Hormonal Contraceptives, typically with OCPs.
  • Leiomyomas ( fibroids Fibroids A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the uterus and the gastrointestinal tract but can occur in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues. Infertility): benign Benign Fibroadenoma monoclonal tumors arising from smooth muscle cells in the uterine myometrium. Similar to adenomyosis, both conditions present with abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways. Diagnosis is made with pelvic imaging where a fibroid is identified as a hypoechoic Hypoechoic A structure that produces a low-amplitude echo (darker grays) Ultrasound (Sonography), well-circumscribed, round mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast. Management for leiomyomas may include surgical resection or medical options to reduce bleeding or bulk.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia Endometrial Hyperplasia Benign proliferation of the endometrium in the uterus. Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by its cytology and glandular tissue. There are simple, complex (adenomatous without atypia), and atypical hyperplasia representing also the ascending risk of becoming malignant. Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer or malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax: Endometrial hyperplasia Endometrial Hyperplasia Benign proliferation of the endometrium in the uterus. Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by its cytology and glandular tissue. There are simple, complex (adenomatous without atypia), and atypical hyperplasia representing also the ascending risk of becoming malignant. Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Cancer is abnormal growth of the endometrium Endometrium The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize menstruation. After successful fertilization, it serves to sustain the developing embryo. Embryoblast and Trophoblast Development, which may progress to adenocarcinoma. The condition is caused by excess estrogen Estrogen Compounds that interact with estrogen receptors in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of estradiol. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds. Ovaries: Anatomy unopposed by progesterone Progesterone The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. Progesterone acts on the uterus, the mammary glands and the brain. It is required in embryo implantation; pregnancy maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for milk production. Progesterone, converted from pregnenolone, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and adrenal corticosteroids. Gonadal Hormones. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship typically present with heavy menstrual and/or intermenstrual bleeding in the reproductive years, and postmenopausal bleeding when older. Diagnosis is made on biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. A hysterectomy is usually the recommended treatment.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS PCOS Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women, affecting nearly 5%-10% of women in the age group. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation leading to oligomenorrhea (or amenorrhea), and metabolic dysfunction. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome): the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women, characterized by hyperandrogenism Hyperandrogenism A condition caused by the excessive secretion of androgens from the adrenal cortex; the ovaries; or the testes. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are hirsutism and virilism as seen in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and adrenocortical hyperfunction. Potassium-sparing Diuretics and chronic anovulation Anovulation Suspension or cessation of ovulation in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (ovarian follicle). Depending on the etiology, ovulation may be induced with appropriate therapy. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. This leads to oligomenorrhea Oligomenorrhea Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and metabolic dysfunction. Bleeding is usually irregular and may be quite heavy. Diagnosis is one of exclusion, so other causes of AUB AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding is the medical term for abnormalities in the frequency, volume, duration, and regularity of the menstrual cycle. Abnormal uterine bleeding is classified using the acronym palm-coein, with palm representing the structural causes and coein indicating the non-structural causes. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and hirsutism Hirsutism A condition observed in women and children when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated androgens from the ovaries, the adrenal glands, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include hypertrichosis, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome should be ruled out with imaging and lab work. Management includes attempting to restore normal ovulation Ovulation The discharge of an ovum from a rupturing follicle in the ovary. Menstrual Cycle through weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery, OCPs, and assistance with fertility.

References

  1. Stewart, E.A. (2021). Uterine adenomyosis. In A. Chakrabarti, A. (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/uterine-adenomyosis 
  2. Gunther, R. (2020). Adenomyosis. In Walker, C. (Ed.), StatPearls. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from https://www.statpearls.com/articlelibrary/viewarticle/42961/ 
  3. American College of Obstetric and Gynecology Committee on Gynecology. (2012). Practice Bulletin No. 128: Diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women. ACOG Vol. 120, No.1, pg. 197-203.
  4. Kilpatrick, C. C. (2019). Uterine adenomyosis. [online] MSD Manual Professional Version. Retrieved March 6, 2021, from https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/miscellaneous-gynecologic-disorders/uterine-adenomyosis
  5. Ely, L. K., and Truong, M. (2018). Adenomyosis. In Karjane, N.W. (Ed.), Medscape. Retrieved March 6, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500101-overview

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