Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies, which cause the thyroid gland to hyperfunction. Clinical features include those of hyperthyroidism, as well as orbitopathy, goiter, and dermopathy/pretibial myxedema. Diagnosis is by thyroid laboratory tests showing a low TSH, elevated thyroid hormones (thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies (TRAbs; particularly the thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins subtype). If initial tests are nondiagnostic, radioactive iodine uptake (increased uptake) and thyroid ultrasound (diffuse thyroid enlargement) provide diagnostic information. Treatment options include antithyroid drugs, radioiodine ablation, and surgery.
Last updated: Feb 16, 2023
Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder Autoimmune Disorder Septic Arthritis in which antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions against the thyroid-stimulating hormone Thyroid-stimulating hormone A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis. Thyrotropin stimulates thyroid gland by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine). Thyroid Hormones (TSH) receptors Receptors Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors cause the thyroid Thyroid The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body. The thyroid gland is a highly vascular, brownish-red gland located in the visceral compartment of the anterior region of the neck. Thyroid Gland: Anatomy gland to hyperfunction. The syndrome may have the following features:
Susceptibility to Graves’ disease is considered to be a combination of multiple factors.
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