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Hereditary Spherocytosis

Hereditary spherocytosis ( HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars) is the most common type of hereditary hemolytic anemia Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia (HA) is the term given to a large group of anemias that are caused by the premature destruction/hemolysis of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can occur within (intravascular hemolysis) or outside the blood vessels (extravascular hemolysis). Hemolytic Anemia. The condition is caused by a cytoskeletal protein deficiency in the RBC membrane. This results in loss of membrane stability and deformability of the RBC, giving the cell its spherical shape (spherocyte). These cells are predisposed to splenic degradation, leading to hemolysis. Examination may show jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice and splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly, while laboratory tests are consistent with hemolytic anemia Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia (HA) is the term given to a large group of anemias that are caused by the premature destruction/hemolysis of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can occur within (intravascular hemolysis) or outside the blood vessels (extravascular hemolysis). Hemolytic Anemia and increased hemoglobin concentration. Among multiple confirmatory tests for HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars, the eosin-5’-maleimide (EMA) binding test is preferred. The only definitive treatment for HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars is splenectomy Splenectomy Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen. Rupture of the Spleen.

Last updated: 8 Jan, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Epidemiology and Etiology

Epidemiology

  • The most common type of hereditary hemolytic anemia Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia (HA) is the term given to a large group of anemias that are caused by the premature destruction/hemolysis of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can occur within (intravascular hemolysis) or outside the blood vessels (extravascular hemolysis). Hemolytic Anemia due to red cell membrane Cell Membrane A cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the cell contents from the outside environment. A cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that function to protect cellular DNA and mediate the exchange of ions and molecules. The Cell: Cell Membrane defect
  • Common in those of northern European descent, affecting 1 in 3,000 individuals
  • United States: 1.4% of the population may be silent carriers Carriers The Cell: Cell Membrane of hereditary spherocytosis ( HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars)

Etiology

  • Majority of cases are autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance with variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables penetrance Penetrance The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. Familial Juvenile Polyposis
  • Involves the RBC cell membrane Cell Membrane A cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the cell contents from the outside environment. A cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that function to protect cellular DNA and mediate the exchange of ions and molecules. The Cell: Cell Membrane, which has 3 main components:
    • Lipid bilayer
    • Membrane proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis (band 3 is one of them)
    • Cytoskeletal network, of which spectrin is the most abundant protein

In HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars, gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics mutations lead to cytoskeletal protein deficiency:

  • Spectrin deficiency
    • Spectrin, a protein comprising α and β heterodimers, keeps the cell shape and elasticity Elasticity Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape. Skeletal Muscle Contraction.
    • Genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure
      • SPTA1 encodes for α heterodimers ( autosomal recessive Autosomal recessive Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal recessive diseases are only expressed when 2 copies of the recessive allele are inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance mutations).
      • SPTB1 encodes for β heterodimers ( autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance mutations).
    • Deficiency can be from:
      • Other defective membrane proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis that bind BIND Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn spectrin (even in ANK1 mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations causing ankyrin defect, there is spectrin deficiency due to loss of ankyrin attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology sites)
      • Impaired spectrin synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from SPTA1/SPTB1 mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations
    • Degree of spectrin deficiency correlates with the severity of spherocytosis.
  • Ankyrin deficiency
    • Anchors transmembrane proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis to the skeleton through spectrin, band 3, and protein 4.2
    • Encoded by ANK1 gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics ( autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations)
    • Mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations of ANK1 causes combined ankyrin and spectrin deficiency (see above), which is found in 75% of  autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.
  • Band 3 
    • Encoded by SLC4A1 gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics ( autosomal dominant Autosomal dominant Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal dominant diseases are expressed when only 1 copy of the dominant allele is inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations)
    • Mutations can present with distal renal tubule acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis.
  • Protein 4.2 
    • Regulates binding of band 3 to ankyrin
    • Encoded by EPB42 gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics (mutations mostly autosomal recessive Autosomal recessive Autosomal inheritance, both dominant and recessive, refers to the transmission of genes from the 22 autosomal chromosomes. Autosomal recessive diseases are only expressed when 2 copies of the recessive allele are inherited. Autosomal Recessive and Autosomal Dominant Inheritance)
    • Mutations commonly found in Japan
Hereditary spherocytosis

Major proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis of the RBC membrane

Image by Lecturio.

Pathophysiology

  • Normal biconcave RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology circulate repeatedly through narrow channels Channels The Cell: Cell Membrane → requires extensive reversible deformation
  • Defective cytoskeletal proteins Proteins Linear polypeptides that are synthesized on ribosomes and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during protein folding, and the function of the protein. Energy Homeostasis → interrupt the vertical structure (spectrin-actin interaction) → disrupted cohesion of the inner membrane skeleton and the outer lipid bilayer → loss of surface area and stability of the RBC → spherocytes
  • Spherocytes are prone to hemolysis:
    • Abnormal RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology without cellular deformability → trapped by the spleen Spleen The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, located in the LUQ of the abdomen, superior to the left kidney and posterior to the stomach at the level of the 9th-11th ribs just below the diaphragm. The spleen is highly vascular and acts as an important blood filter, cleansing the blood of pathogens and damaged erythrocytes. Spleen: Anatomy → successively destroyed by macrophages Macrophages The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood monocytes. Main types are peritoneal macrophages; alveolar macrophages; histiocytes; kupffer cells of the liver; and osteoclasts. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to epithelioid cells or may fuse to form foreign body giant cells or langhans giant cells. Innate Immunity: Phagocytes and Antigen Presentation
    • Low pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance, low glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance, and high free radicals Free radicals Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated. Ischemic Cell Damage in the splenic environment lead to more membrane damage Membrane Damage Cell Injury and Death.

Clinical Presentation

General features

  • Anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types: pallor, tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children, fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia, shortness of breath Shortness of breath Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea, transfusion dependency
  • Extravascular hemolysis Extravascular hemolysis Hemolytic Anemia causing bilirubin Bilirubin A bile pigment that is a degradation product of heme. Heme Metabolism 
    • Recurrent jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice 
    • Hemoglobinuria Hemoglobinuria The presence of free hemoglobin in the urine, indicating hemolysis of erythrocytes within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (haptoglobins), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine. Transfusion Reactions
    • Gallstones Gallstones Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. Most gallstones are cholesterol stones, while the rest are composed of bilirubin (pigment stones) and other mixed components. Patients are commonly asymptomatic but may present with biliary colic (intermittent pain in the right upper quadrant). Cholelithiasis (+/- pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways in right upper quadrant Right upper quadrant Anterior Abdominal Wall: Anatomy
    • Splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly

Categories

Four clinical categories have been established based on hemoglobin ( Hb Hb The oxygen-carrying proteins of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements. Gas Exchange), reticulocyte Reticulocyte Immature erythrocytes. In humans, these are erythroid cells that have just undergone extrusion of their cell nucleus. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. Ribosomes are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic ‘reticulum’ (not the same as the endoplasmic reticulum), hence the name reticulocytes. Erythrocytes: Histology (retic) count, and bilirubin Bilirubin A bile pigment that is a degradation product of heme. Heme Metabolism (bili) level.

  1. HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars trait: 
    • No anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types, normal reticulocyte Reticulocyte Immature erythrocytes. In humans, these are erythroid cells that have just undergone extrusion of their cell nucleus. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. Ribosomes are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic ‘reticulum’ (not the same as the endoplasmic reticulum), hence the name reticulocytes. Erythrocytes: Histology count, asymptomatic
  2. Mild HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars: 
    • Hb Hb The oxygen-carrying proteins of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements. Gas Exchange 11–15 g/dL, retic 3-6%, bili 1–2 mg/dL
    • 20%–30% of cases
  3. Moderate HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars
    • Hb Hb The oxygen-carrying proteins of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements. Gas Exchange 8–12 g/dL, retic > 6%, bili > 2 mg/dL
    • 60%–75% of cases
  4. Severe HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars
    • Hb Hb The oxygen-carrying proteins of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements. Gas Exchange 6–8 g/dL, retic > 10%, bili > 3%
    • 5% of cases
Jaundice eye

Scleral icterus Icterus A clinical manifestation of hyperbilirubinemia, characterized by the yellowish staining of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of liver dysfunction. Jaundice: The 1st clinical sign of bilirubin Bilirubin A bile pigment that is a degradation product of heme. Heme Metabolism deposition in the body

Image: “ Jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice eye new” by CDC/Dr. Thomas F. Sellers/Emory University. License: Public Domain

Diagnosis

History and physical exam

  • Check for family history Family History Adult Health Maintenance of HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars, gallstones Gallstones Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. Most gallstones are cholesterol stones, while the rest are composed of bilirubin (pigment stones) and other mixed components. Patients are commonly asymptomatic but may present with biliary colic (intermittent pain in the right upper quadrant). Cholelithiasis
  • Jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice or splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly (currently present or in history)

Initial tests

  • CBC
    • Anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types (↓ hemoglobin)
    • Normal to mildly MCV ( mean Mean Mean is the sum of all measurements in a data set divided by the number of measurements in that data set. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion corpuscular volume)
    • MCHC ( mean Mean Mean is the sum of all measurements in a data set divided by the number of measurements in that data set. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) 
      • ≥ 36 g/dL
      • Most common finding in neonates 
      • Often the most useful parameter for spherocytosis
  • Peripheral blood smear Peripheral Blood Smear Anemia: Overview and Types
    • Spherocytes: lack of central pallor, increased density (not specific to HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars)
    • Abnormal RBC shapes
    • Polychromatophilia (affinity for multiple stains)
  • Hemolysis work-up:

Confirmatory tests

  • Eosin-5’-maleimide (EMA) binding test
    • Most reliable test
    • Eosin-based fluorescent dye binds to cell membrane Cell Membrane A cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the cell contents from the outside environment. A cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins that function to protect cellular DNA and mediate the exchange of ions and molecules. The Cell: Cell Membrane protein (band 3) in RBC 
    • ↓ fluorescence intensity in HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars
    • Advantages: high specificity Specificity Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. Immunoassays and sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques, short turnaround time, minimal amount of blood used (5 µL)
    • Mild HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars may come out false negative False negative An FN test result indicates a person does not have the disease when, in fact, they do. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests.
  • Osmotic fragility test 
    • Positive in hereditary spherocytosis 
    • RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology placed in serial solutions of saline; Spherocytes, with low surface-to-volume area, hemolyze in hypoosmotic solutions.
    • Labor-intensive, takes 18–24 hours
    • Low sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques in detecting mild HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars and newborn Newborn An infant during the first 28 days after birth. Physical Examination of the Newborn HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars 
  • Acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT): 
    • Modified osmotic fragility test using glycerol solution
    • “Pink test”: a modified AGLT
    • Comparable sensitivity Sensitivity Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Blotting Techniques with EMA test
    • Combination of EMA test with AGLT identifies all patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars.
  • Molecular analysis for gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics mutations 
    • Further characterization of mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations for family members
    • Done if test(s) us equivocal and/or management will be altered (e.g., splenectomy Splenectomy Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen. Rupture of the Spleen)
Hereditary spherocytosis

Hereditary spherocytosis ( HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars): peripheral blood smear Peripheral Blood Smear Anemia: Overview and Types

The black arrow shows a spherocyte. The white arrow shows a normal RBC (the lack of central pallor is an artifact). Hereditary spherocytosis forms having different membrane defects can show different red cell morphologies.

Image: “Previously undiagnosed HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars” by US National Library of Medicine. License: CC BY 4.0

Management and Complications

Management

  • Education about the risks of aplastic crisis and splenic rupture Splenic rupture Splenic rupture is a medical emergency that carries a significant risk of hypovolemic shock and death. Injury to the spleen accounts for nearly half of all injuries to intra-abdominal organs. The most common reason for a rupture of the spleen is blunt abdominal trauma, specifically, motor vehicle accidents. Rupture of the Spleen (in those with splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly)
  • Folate Folate Folate and vitamin B12 are 2 of the most clinically important water-soluble vitamins. Deficiencies can present with megaloblastic anemia, GI symptoms, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and adverse pregnancy complications, including neural tube defects. Folate and Vitamin B12 supplementation
    • For pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care (4–5 mg/day)
    • In moderate to severe HS HS Hypertrophic scars and keloids are raised, red, and rigid (3 rs) scars that develop during cutaneous wound healing and are characterized by a local abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts with over-production of collagen. Over-expression of growth factors and decreased production of molecules that promote matrix breakdown appear to be involved in the etiology. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars (1–2 mg/day)
  • Transfusion in aplastic crisis
  • Cholecystectomy Cholecystectomy Cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure performed with the goal of resecting and extracting the gallbladder. It is one of the most common abdominal surgeries performed in the Western world. Cholecystectomy is performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, gallbladder polyps > 0.5 cm, porcelain gallbladder, choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis, and rarely, for gallbladder cancer. Cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones Gallstones Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. Most gallstones are cholesterol stones, while the rest are composed of bilirubin (pigment stones) and other mixed components. Patients are commonly asymptomatic but may present with biliary colic (intermittent pain in the right upper quadrant). Cholelithiasis
  • Splenectomy Splenectomy Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen. Rupture of the Spleen
    • Definitive management for severe hemolysis (> 6 years old to reduce risk of sepsis Sepsis Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by hypotension despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called septic shock. Sepsis and Septic Shock), especially those requiring recurrent transfusion
    • Immunization for encapsulated Encapsulated Klebsiella organisms ( Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus Influenzae A species of Haemophilus found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through viii. Haemophilus type B, and Neisseria meningitidis Neisseria meningitidis A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis. It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being a, b, c, y, and w-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype. Neisseria) before splenectomy Splenectomy Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen. Rupture of the Spleen
  • Pediatric cases:
    • Erythropoietin Erythropoietin Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the kidney in the adult and the liver in the fetus, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the bone marrow to stimulate proliferation and differentiation. Erythrocytes: Histology ( EPO EPO Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the kidney in the adult and the liver in the fetus, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the bone marrow to stimulate proliferation and differentiation. Erythrocytes: Histology) can be administered in anemic infants to decrease the need for transfusion.
    • Neonatal jaundice Neonatal jaundice Yellow discoloration of the skin; mucous membrane; and sclera in the newborn. It is a sign of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Most cases are transient self-limiting (physiological neonatal jaundice) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly liver diseases. Jaundice

Complications

  • Exacerbations of anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types
    • Transient aplastic crisis Transient aplastic crisis Parvovirus B19 can be caused by viral or bacterial infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease (commonly parvovirus B19 Parvovirus B19 Primate erythroparvovirus 1 (generally referred to as parvovirus B19, B19 virus, or sometimes erythrovirus B19) ranks among the smallest DNA viruses. Parvovirus B19 is of the family Parvoviridae and genus Erythrovirus. In immunocompetent humans, parvovirus B19 classically results in erythema infectiosum (5th disease) or “slapped cheek syndrome.” Parvovirus B19).
      • RBC production in bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis is suppressed so that it cannot compensate for the peripheral loss of RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology by chronic hemolysis.
    • Splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly:
      • Noted in 75% of affected patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
      • If augmented by a superimposed cause of splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly, (e.g., infectious Infectious Febrile Infant mononucleosis Mononucleosis Infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as “the kissing disease,” is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Its common name is derived from its main method of transmission: the spread of infected saliva via kissing. Clinical manifestations of IM include fever, tonsillar pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy. Mononucleosis, cirrhosis Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic parenchymal necrosis and scarring (fibrosis) most commonly due to hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. Patients may present with jaundice, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly. Cirrhosis can also cause complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Cirrhosis, lymphoma Lymphoma A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue. Imaging of the Mediastinum), then increased sequestration (pooling) of RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology and/or hemolysis may occur.
    • Nutrient deficiencies: Deficiencies in folate Folate Folate and vitamin B12 are 2 of the most clinically important water-soluble vitamins. Deficiencies can present with megaloblastic anemia, GI symptoms, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and adverse pregnancy complications, including neural tube defects. Folate and Vitamin B12, iron Iron A metallic element with atomic symbol fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55. 85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobins; cytochromes; and iron-binding proteins. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of oxygen. Trace Elements, or vitamin B12 may interfere with RBC production.
      • Pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care: added stress of increasing RBC mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast and expanding plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products volume may worsen anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types, and folic acid and iron Iron A metallic element with atomic symbol fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55. 85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobins; cytochromes; and iron-binding proteins. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of oxygen. Trace Elements deficiencies may occur
    • Pigment ( bilirubin Bilirubin A bile pigment that is a degradation product of heme. Heme Metabolism) gallstones Gallstones Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is the presence of stones in the gallbladder. Most gallstones are cholesterol stones, while the rest are composed of bilirubin (pigment stones) and other mixed components. Patients are commonly asymptomatic but may present with biliary colic (intermittent pain in the right upper quadrant). Cholelithiasis:
      • Rare before the age of 10
      • Due to hyperbilirubinemia Hyperbilirubinemia A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of bilirubin in the blood, which may result in jaundice. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of heme, is normally excreted in the bile or further catabolized before excretion in the urine. Jaundice
      • May present as cholecystitis Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is the inflammation of the gallbladder (GB) usually caused by the obstruction of the cystic duct (acute cholecystitis). Mechanical irritation by gallstones can also produce chronic GB inflammation. Cholecystitis is one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis but inflammation without gallstones can occur in a minority of patients. Cholecystitis
  • Newborns at risk for kernicterus Kernicterus A term used pathologically to describe bilirubin staining of the basal ganglia; brain stem; and cerebellum and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Clinical features include athetosis, muscle spasticity or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and deafness. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the blood-brain barrier (e.g., sepsis). This condition occurs primarily in neonates, but may rarely occur in adults. Hyperbilirubinemia of the Newborn (neurologic damage from severe hyperbilirubinemia Hyperbilirubinemia A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of bilirubin in the blood, which may result in jaundice. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of heme, is normally excreted in the bile or further catabolized before excretion in the urine. Jaundice)

Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis includes other causes of hemolysis, most of which will show at least some spherocytes in the peripheral blood.

  • Sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of genetic disorders in which an abnormal Hb molecule (HbS) transforms RBCs into sickle-shaped cells, resulting in chronic anemia, vasoocclusive episodes, pain, and organ damage. Sickle Cell Disease: a group of hereditary disorders characterized by abnormal hemoglobin structure leading to polymerization and deformation of RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present in early childhood with chronic hemolytic anemia Chronic Hemolytic Anemia Anemia: Overview and Types, chronic pain Chronic pain Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain. Pain Management, and infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Sickle cell crises are episodes of acute increased hemolysis requiring blood transfusions Blood transfusions The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the bloodstream. Transfusion Products. Bone marrow Bone marrow The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. Bone Marrow: Composition and Hematopoiesis transplantation is the only curative treatment.
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Pentose Phosphate Pathway deficiency ( G6PD G6PD Pentose Phosphate Pathway): an X-linked recessive X-Linked Recessive Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy defect that increases the susceptibility of RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology to oxidative stress Oxidative stress A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products. Cell Injury and Death, resulting in episodes of hemolytic anemia Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia (HA) is the term given to a large group of anemias that are caused by the premature destruction/hemolysis of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can occur within (intravascular hemolysis) or outside the blood vessels (extravascular hemolysis). Hemolytic Anemia. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship present with abdominal pain Abdominal Pain Acute Abdomen, jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice, hemoglobinuria Hemoglobinuria The presence of free hemoglobin in the urine, indicating hemolysis of erythrocytes within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (haptoglobins), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine. Transfusion Reactions, and enlargement of the spleen Spleen The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, located in the LUQ of the abdomen, superior to the left kidney and posterior to the stomach at the level of the 9th-11th ribs just below the diaphragm. The spleen is highly vascular and acts as an important blood filter, cleansing the blood of pathogens and damaged erythrocytes. Spleen: Anatomy. Triggers Triggers Hereditary Angioedema (C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency) include consumption of fava beans, drugs (antimalarials, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs NSAIDS Primary vs Secondary Headaches)), and infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Management includes avoidance of triggers Triggers Hereditary Angioedema (C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency). There is no curative treatment.
  • Immune-related hemolysis: caused by cold or warm reactive immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions that attach to RBCs RBCs Erythrocytes, or red blood cells (RBCs), are the most abundant cells in the blood. While erythrocytes in the fetus are initially produced in the yolk sac then the liver, the bone marrow eventually becomes the main site of production. Erythrocytes: Histology and destroy the membrane. Many cases are idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis; secondary causes include malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax, infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease, and other autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides. Selective IgA Deficiency such as SLE SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, inflammatory condition that causes immune-complex deposition in organs, resulting in systemic manifestations. Women, particularly those of African American descent, are more commonly affected. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Treatment includes trigger Trigger The type of signal that initiates the inspiratory phase by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation avoidance, immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants are a class of drugs widely used in the management of autoimmune conditions and organ transplant rejection. The general effect is dampening of the immune response. Immunosuppressants ( glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are a class within the corticosteroid family. Glucocorticoids are chemically and functionally similar to endogenous cortisol. There are a wide array of indications, which primarily benefit from the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of this class of drugs. Glucocorticoids, rituximab Rituximab A murine-derived monoclonal antibody and antineoplastic agent that binds specifically to the cd20 antigen and is used in the treatment of leukemia; lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis. Immunosuppressants), and IV immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions.

References

  1. Bianchi, P. et al. (2012). Diagnostic power of laboratory tests for hereditary spherocytosis: a comparison study in 150 patients grouped according to molecular and clinical characteristics. 97(4): 516–523. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347664/
  2. Ciepiela,O. (2018). Old and new insights into the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis. Ann Transl Med. 6(17): 339. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174190/
  3. Gonzalez, G.; Talavera, F. & Sacher, R. (Eds.). (2018). Hereditary Spherocytosis. Medscape. Retrieved 24 Aug, 2020, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/206107
  4. Mentzer, W.; Leung, L. (Ed.); Tirnauer, J. (Ed.). (2019). Hereditary Spherocytosis. Uptodate. Retrieved 24 Aug, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/hereditary-spherocytosis
  5. Saavides, P.; Shalev, O.; John, K.; Lux, S.(1993). Combined Spectrin and Ankyrin deficiency is common in autosomal dominant hereditary spherocytosis. Blood.82:2953-2960.
  6. Tole, S., Dhir, P., Pugi, J., et al. (2020). Genotype–phenotype correlation in children with hereditary spherocytosis. Br J Haematol. doi:10.1111/bjh.16750
  7. Perrotta, S., Gallagher, P.G., Mohandas, N. (2008). Hereditary spherocytosis. Lancet 2008; 372: 1411–26
  8. Lynch, E.. (1990). Peripheral Blood Smear. In: Walker, H.K., Hall, W.D., Hurst, J.W. (Eds.). Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition. Boston: Butterworths; 1990. Chapter 155. Retrieved 16 Oct, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK263/

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