Burkholderia species are gram-negative bacilli Bacilli Shigella with 2 clinically relevant pathogens: B. pseudomallei (causing melioidosis) and B. cepacia complex (causing opportunistic infections Opportunistic infections An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression. Autosomal Dominant Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome). Melioidosis is commonly seen in Asia ASIA Spinal Cord Injuries and Australia. Infection is transmitted by contact with contaminated soil or water (via skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions wounds). The disease affects multiple systems, and can present with pneumonia Pneumonia Pneumonia or pulmonary inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammation of lung tissue. Causes include infection with bacteria, viruses, or fungi. In more rare cases, pneumonia can also be caused through toxic triggers through inhalation of toxic substances, immunological processes, or in the course of radiotherapy. Pneumonia, encephalomyelitis, and skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions abscesses. Diagnosis is by culture of specimen (depending on the organ involved). Treatment requires an initial intensive antibiotic therapy followed by prolonged eradication therapy. Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) generally affects immunocompromised immunocompromised A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation. Gastroenteritis individuals such as those with cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene CFTR. The mutations lead to dysfunction of chloride channels, which results in hyperviscous mucus and the accumulation of secretions. Common presentations include chronic respiratory infections, failure to thrive, and pancreatic insufficiency. Cystic Fibrosis (CF). It can be transmitted from person to person or through contaminated devices. While BCC is a rare infection, it is important to diagnose, as BCC is multi-drug resistant and infection is a relative contraindication to lung transplantation Lung transplantation The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another. Organ Transplantation.
Last updated: 7 Apr, 2022
Clinically significant species:
Host risk factors include:
Symptoms can present in various systems:
Diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests are important aspects in making a diagnosis. Some of the most important epidemiological values of diagnostic tests include sensitivity and specificity, false positives and false negatives, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and pre-test and post-test probabilities. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests:
Initial regimen(s) depends on severity of illness and system(s) affected:
Medical devices that can be contaminated and produce infection:
Host risk factors:
Most infected people have no symptoms. Those with symptoms can have:
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