Prostatitis

Prostatitis is inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation or an irritative condition of the prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands that presents as different syndromes: acute bacterial, chronic bacterial, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain, and asymptomatic. Bacterial prostatitis is easier to identify clinically and the management (antibiotics) is better established. Whether the condition is in an acute or chronic state determines the length of antibiotic treatment. The main diagnostic tools are history, physical examination, and work-up investigating the sources of infection (urinalysis and culture). Digital rectal examination is only recommended in patients with chronic prostatitis and not in acute bacterial prostatitis due to the risk of sepsis Sepsis Organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated systemic host response to infection separates sepsis from uncomplicated infection. The etiology is mainly bacterial and pneumonia is the most common known source. Patients commonly present with fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, and/or altered mentation. Sepsis and Septic Shock. Chronic pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion and requires multimodal pain management Pain Management Pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain is a subjective experience. Acute pain lasts < 3 months and typically has a specific, identifiable cause. Pain Management with established patient expectations. The asymptomatic type is an incidental finding that is recognized when a patient has other urologic issues.

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Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

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Overview

Definition

Prostatitis is inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands gland that presents as different syndromes:

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis: acute bacterial infection of the prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands with lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis: chronic bacterial infection of the prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands with lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms
  • Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain syndrome (CPPS):
    • Chronic lower pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain and inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands gland ≥ 3 months
    • May or may not be associated with infection
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: non-infectious, nonspecific prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands gland inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation

Epidemiology and etiology

  • Prostatitis accounts for 2 million urology visits in the United States annually.
    • CPPS is the most common diagnosis.
    • Incidence of acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis is about 4%–5%.
  • Risk factors for acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis: 
    • Inflammatory disorders: cystitis or urethritis
    • Other genitourinary (GU) infections: 
      • Gram-negative urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a wide spectrum of diseases, from self-limiting simple cystitis to severe pyelonephritis that can result in sepsis and death. Urinary tract infections are most commonly caused by Escherichia coli, but may also be caused by other bacteria and fungi. Urinary Tract Infections ( Escherichia coli Escherichia coli The gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is a key component of the human gut microbiota. Most strains of E. coli are avirulent, but occasionally they escape the GI tract, infecting the urinary tract and other sites. Less common strains of E. coli are able to cause disease within the GI tract, most commonly presenting as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, and Serratia) are responsible for 80% of cases in men > 35 years old.
      • STIs: Neisseria Neisseria Neisseria is a genus of bacteria commonly present on mucosal surfaces. Several species exist, but only 2 are pathogenic to humans: N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis. Neisseria species are non-motile, gram-negative diplococci most commonly isolated on modified Thayer-Martin (MTM) agar. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Chlamydia Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria. They lack a peptidoglycan layer and are best visualized using Giemsa stain. The family of Chlamydiaceae comprises 3 pathogens that can infect humans: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis in men < 35 years old
    • Prostate gland or bladder stones posing as nidus for infection
    • Iatrogenic:
      • Recent GU instrumentation
      • Chronic indwelling Foley catheters
      • GU trauma 
    • Anatomic considerations: Urethral strictures can increase the risk of prostatitis.
  • Chronic pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain/CPPS: unclear pathogenesis
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: most often incidental finding and no underlying etiology usually found
Microscopic appearance of chronic prostatitis

Microscopic appearance of chronic prostatitis:
Numerous small, dark-blue lymphocytes Lymphocytes Lymphocytes are heterogeneous WBCs involved in immune response. Lymphocytes develop from the bone marrow, starting from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progressing to common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). B and T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells arise from the lineage. Lymphocytes are seen in the stroma between the glands.

Image: “The relationship between histological prostatitis and lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms and sexual function” by Kumsar S, Kose O, Aydemir H, Halis F, Gokce A, Adsan O, Akkaya ZK. License: CC BY 4.0

Clinical Presentation

Acute bacterial prostatitis

  • Acutely ill appearing on clinical exam
  • Generalized symptoms: 
    • High fevers
    • Subjective chills
    • Malaise
  • Lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms: 
    • Dysuria
    • Urinary frequency/urgency
    • Urge incontinence
  • Localized pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain symptoms: 
    • Pelvic or perineal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain
    • Pain at the tip of the penis Penis The penis is the male organ of copulation and micturition. The organ is composed of a root, body, and glans. The root is attached to the pubic bone by the crura penis. The body consists of the 2 parallel corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum. The glans is ensheathed by the prepuce or foreskin. Penis
    • Inguinal or scrotal pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

  • Subtle clinical picture:
    • Usually not ill appearing
    • May be asymptomatic
  • Generalized symptoms: low-grade fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever or subjective chills
  • Lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms:
    • Dysuria
    • Urinary frequency/urgency
    • Urge incontinence
  • Localized pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain symptoms: 
    • Perineal discomfort
    • Bladder irritation
    • Pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain

Chronic pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis

  • CPPS: 
    • Lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms:
      • Urinary frequency/urgency
      • Painful bladder-filling sensation
      • Dysuria
    • Localized pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain symptoms:
      • Perineal tenderness (most common)
      • Mildly tender prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands
      • Myofascial tenderness
      • Suprapubic tenderness
    • Sexual dysfunction
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: 
    • Usually asymptomatic
    • Evidence of prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands gland inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation found incidentally

Diagnosis

Physical exam

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis:
    • Gentle digital rectal exam (DRE): edematous and exquisitely tender prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands
    • Vigorous prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands massage can induce acute bacteremia
    • General GU exam (assess other associated abnormalities)
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis: 
    • DRE may reveal edematous prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands gland or normal exam.
    • Inguinal exam to assess for tenderness or masses
    • Pelvic exam to assess for tenderness or neuropathy
    • General GU exam

Diagnostic approach

  • Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis are worked up similarly on initial presentation:
    • Urinalysis (UA) revealing:
      • Pyuria: elevated WBCs
      • May be nitrite positive
      • May be leukocyte esterase positive
    • Urine culture identifies the organism and determines sensitivity.
    • STI STI Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that spread either by vaginal intercourse, anal sex, or oral sex. Symptoms and signs may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, dysuria, skin lesions (e.g., warts, ulcers) on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. Some infections can lead to infertility and chronic debilitating disease. Overview: Sexually Transmitted Infections panel: Test for Neisseria Neisseria Neisseria is a genus of bacteria commonly present on mucosal surfaces. Several species exist, but only 2 are pathogenic to humans: N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis. Neisseria species are non-motile, gram-negative diplococci most commonly isolated on modified Thayer-Martin (MTM) agar. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Chlamydia Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria. They lack a peptidoglycan layer and are best visualized using Giemsa stain. The family of Chlamydiaceae comprises 3 pathogens that can infect humans: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Chlamydia trachomatis.
    • CBC: may show elevated WBC count suggestive of infection
    • Blood culture:
      • Usually not needed
      • May help assess complications at high risk for sepsis Sepsis Organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated systemic host response to infection separates sepsis from uncomplicated infection. The etiology is mainly bacterial and pneumonia is the most common known source. Patients commonly present with fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, and/or altered mentation. Sepsis and Septic Shock (e.g., valvular disease)
    • PSA: 
      • Nonspecific but will show acute elevation in value
      • Can be elevated in other conditions
    • For chronic bacterial prostatitis, an additional diagnostic test performed is prostatic fluid collection (Meares-Stamey 4-glass test):
      • Requires fractional urine specimen and prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands secretion collection after prostatic massage
      • Specimens: 1st-void urine (urethra), midstream urine (bladder), prostatic secretions, and post-massage urine
      • Not usually done clinically due to cumbersome nature
    • Imaging:
      • Transrectal prostatic ultrasonography (TRUS) or CT scan of the prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands is recommended only when initial therapy fails.
      • The goal of imaging is to exclude prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands abscess.
  • CPPS is a diagnosis of exclusion: 
    • A clinical diagnosis arrived upon after treatment of initial bacterial prostatitis (patient usually presents with persistent pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain and lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms)
    • Need to rule out persistent infection or abscess
Pelvic computed tomography of prostatic abscesses

Pelvic CT of prostatic abscesses:
Prostatic hypertrophy and intraprostatic abscesses: 20 × 15 × 33 mm and 64 × 21 × 26 mm in the right lobe and 38 × 10 × 30 mm in the left lobe

Image: “Prostatic abscesses and severe sepsis Sepsis Organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated systemic host response to infection separates sepsis from uncomplicated infection. The etiology is mainly bacterial and pneumonia is the most common known source. Patients commonly present with fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, and/or altered mentation. Sepsis and Septic Shock due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus Staphylococcus Staphylococcus is a medically important genera of Gram-positive, aerobic cocci. These bacteria form clusters resembling grapes on culture plates. Staphylococci are ubiquitous for humans, and many strains compose the normal skin flora. Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin” by Dubos M, Barraud O, Fedou AL, Fredon F, Laurent F, Brakbi Y, Cypierre A, François B. License: CC BY 4.0

Management

Treatment

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis: 
    • Antibiotics with high level of penetration into the prostate Prostate The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland surrounds the bladder neck and a portion of the urethra. The prostate is an exocrine gland that produces a weakly acidic secretion, which accounts for roughly 20% of the seminal fluid. Prostate and other Male Reproductive Glands tissue
    • Patients with major comorbidities such as uncontrolled diabetes or heart disease should consider inpatient admission.
    • Severe urinary obstructive symptoms: 
      • Avoid Foley catheter insertion due to risk of sepsis Sepsis Organ dysfunction resulting from a dysregulated systemic host response to infection separates sepsis from uncomplicated infection. The etiology is mainly bacterial and pneumonia is the most common known source. Patients commonly present with fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, and/or altered mentation. Sepsis and Septic Shock
      • If needed, proceed with suprapubic catheter insertion with urology.
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis: 
    • Antibiosis with agents covering gram-negative organisms
    • Prolonged course of antibiotics for about 8–12 weeks
    • Management of urinary obstruction as needed
  • Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain
    • Multimodal therapy
    • Manage urinary obstructive symptoms with alpha-blockers (tamsulosin).
    • Anti-inflammatory medications: 
      • Ibuprofen/diclofenac as needed
      • Neuroleptic medications: pregabalin/gabapentin
    • Pelvic floor Pelvic floor Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the perineum. It extends between the pubic bone anteriorly and the coccyx posteriorly. Vagina, Vulva, and Pelvic Floor physical therapy
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis: 
    • No treatment indicated
    • Usually incidental finding

Antibiotic regimen

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis, uncomplicated: 
    • Trimethoprim Trimethoprim The sulfonamides are a class of antimicrobial drugs inhibiting folic acid synthesize in pathogens. The prototypical drug in the class is sulfamethoxazole. Although not technically sulfonamides, trimethoprim, dapsone, and pyrimethamine are also important antimicrobial agents inhibiting folic acid synthesis. The agents are often combined with sulfonamides, resulting in a synergistic effect. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
    • Fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin)
    • Men < 35 years of age with higher risk of STIs or those with high-risk behaviors: 
      • Doxycycline/azithromycin and ceftriaxone for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively
      • Antibiotics given empirically
  • Acute bacterial prostatitis, complicated (requiring hospitalization), treated with parenteral antibiotics:
    • Broad-spectrum coverage: carbapenem Carbapenem The carbapenems and aztreonam are both members of the bactericidal beta-lactam family of antibiotics (similar to penicillins). They work by preventing bacteria from producing their cell wall, ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Carbapenems and Aztreonam or piperacillin-tazobactam
    • Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones are a group of broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotics inhibiting bacterial DNA replication. Fluoroquinolones cover gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical organisms, as well as some gram-positive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin)
    • Aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics including gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, neomycin, plazomicin, and streptomycin. The class binds the 30S ribosomal subunit to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Unlike other medications with a similar mechanism of action, aminoglycosides are bactericidal. Aminoglycosides (gentamicin or tobramycin)
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis: 
    • Gram-negative coverage agents for prolonged course (8–12 weeks)
    • Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones Fluoroquinolones are a group of broad-spectrum, bactericidal antibiotics inhibiting bacterial DNA replication. Fluoroquinolones cover gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical organisms, as well as some gram-positive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin)
    • Trimethoprim Trimethoprim The sulfonamides are a class of antimicrobial drugs inhibiting folic acid synthesize in pathogens. The prototypical drug in the class is sulfamethoxazole. Although not technically sulfonamides, trimethoprim, dapsone, and pyrimethamine are also important antimicrobial agents inhibiting folic acid synthesis. The agents are often combined with sulfonamides, resulting in a synergistic effect. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

Differential Diagnosis

  • Prostate abscess: manifestation of delayed diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis or progression from inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Clinically, men present with decompensated state, increasing lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract symptoms, and continued prostatic pain Pain Pain has accompanied humans since they first existed, first lamented as the curse of existence and later understood as an adaptive mechanism that ensures survival. Pain is the most common symptomatic complaint and the main reason why people seek medical care. Physiology of Pain despite treatment. Diagnosed with either TRUS or CT to search for prostatic abscess. Treatment with transurethral unroofing of abscess in the operating room.
  • UTI UTI Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a wide spectrum of diseases, from self-limiting simple cystitis to severe pyelonephritis that can result in sepsis and death. Urinary tract infections are most commonly caused by Escherichia coli, but may also be caused by other bacteria and fungi. Urinary Tract Infections/cystitis: GU infection involving the lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract including the bladder. If not treated appropriately, the condition may progress to upper tract infection involving the renal system. Patients with UTI UTI Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a wide spectrum of diseases, from self-limiting simple cystitis to severe pyelonephritis that can result in sepsis and death. Urinary tract infections are most commonly caused by Escherichia coli, but may also be caused by other bacteria and fungi. Urinary Tract Infections/cystitis present with similar symptoms of lower urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract infection: dysuria, hematuria, and urinary frequency/urgency. Diagnosis is with history/physical exam and UA with culture. Treatment is with empiric antibiotics and culture-directed adjustment as needed.

References

  1. Meyrier, A. (2019). Acute bacterial prostatitis. UpToDate. Retrieved January 30, 2021, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/acute-bacterial-prostatitis
  2. Meyrier, A. (2020). Chronic bacterial prostatitis. UpToDate. Retrieved January 30, 2021, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-bacterial-prostatitis
  3. Pontari, M. (2020). Chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. UpToDate. Retrieved January 30, 2021, from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/chronic-prostatitis-and-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome

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