Gastric cancer is the 3rd-most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The majority of cases are from adenocarcinoma. The modifiable risk factors include Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus campylobacter, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus Helicobacter. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. Helicobacter infection, smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases, and nitrate-rich diets. Hereditary syndromes, pernicious anemia Pernicious anemia A megaloblastic anemia occurring in children but more commonly in later life, characterized by histamine-fast achlorhydria, in which the laboratory and clinical manifestations are based on malabsorption of vitamin B12 due to a failure of the gastric mucosa to secrete adequate and potent intrinsic factor. Megaloblastic Anemia, and prior partial gastrectomy are among the endogenous risk factors. When symptoms such as epigastric fullness, vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, and weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery occur, it is likely that the cancer is in the advanced stage. Diagnosis is confirmed with esophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma. Imaging studies and laparoscopy Laparoscopy Laparoscopy is surgical exploration and interventions performed through small incisions with a camera and long instruments. Laparotomy and Laparoscopy aid in determining the cancer stage. Consequently, staging Staging Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. Grading, Staging, and Metastasis dictates the management approach. Management consists of gastrectomy and chemoradiotherapy. Most cases are diagnosed in late stages, indicating a generally poor prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.
Last updated: Dec 5, 2022
Endogenous risk factors:
Exogenous risk factors:
|T (primary tumor Tumor Inflammation)||N ( lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy affected)||M (distant metastases)|
|TX||Cannot be assessed||N0||No regional lymph nodes Lymph Nodes They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 – 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Drainage System: Anatomy||M0||No distant metastases|
|T0||No evidence of tumor Tumor Inflammation||N1||1–2 regional nodes||M1||Confirmed metastases|
|Tis||Carcinoma in situ Carcinoma in situ A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane. Leukoplakia||N2||3–6 regional nodes|
|T1||Invasion up to submucosa||N3||7 or more regional nodes|
|T2||Invasion of muscularis propria|
|T3 T3 A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5′ position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly t3. Thyroid Hormones||Invasion of serosa|
|T4b||Adjacent structures affected|
|0||TisN0M0||Node negative; limited to mucosa|
|1||T1-2N0M0||Node negative; invasion of submucosa up to muscularis propria|
|Node positive; invasion of muscularis propria|
|Node negative; invasion up to serosa|
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5′ position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly t3.
|Node positive; invasion up to serosa|
|4a||T4b, any N, M0||Node positive; beyond serosa, up to adjacent structures|
|4b||Any T, N, M1||Distant metastases|
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