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Purine Salvage Deficiencies

The purine salvage pathway involves production of purine nucleotides Nucleotides The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleic Acids from intermediates formed during degradation of RNA RNA A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. RNA Types and Structure and DNA DNA A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine). DNA Types and Structure. The salvaged nucleosides Nucleosides Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. Nucleic Acids can be reconverted back into nucleotides Nucleotides The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleic Acids. These salvage pathways are crucial in some tissues cannot undergo de novo synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of purine nucleotides Nucleotides The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleic Acids. Deficiencies in these pathways can give rise to conditions such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase An enzyme catalyzing the formation of amp from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism (APRT) deficiency. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome presents with neurologic deficits Neurologic Deficits High-Risk Headaches and self-mutilation in the 1st year of life and APRT deficiency presents with renal dysfunction. There is no cure for either disease, and treatment is supportive. The prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas is poor for patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship die within the 1st 2 decades of life but APRT deficiency can result in end-stage renal disease if left untreated.

Last updated: 18 Nov, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Purines Purines A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include adenine and guanine, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as caffeine and theophylline. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism. Nucleic Acids are used for cellular energy and may be recycled through a salvage pathway that is susceptible to enzyme deficiencies that cause Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase An enzyme catalyzing the formation of amp from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism (APRT) deficiency.

Epidemiology

  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: 
    • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 1 in 380,000 live births 
    • Males are affected ( X-linked X-linked Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X chromosome in humans or the X chromosome in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) disorder).
    • Females are heterozygous carriers Carriers The Cell: Cell Membrane.
  • APRT deficiency: 
    • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 1 in 15,000–100,000 live births
    • Japanese and Icelandic patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are more susceptible to disease.
    • Equal prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency in males and females

Etiology

  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: 
    • Due to hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency
    • Caused by mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations of HPRT1 gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics
    • Rare
    • X-linked recessive inheritance X-linked recessive inheritance Sex-Linked Inheritance
  • APRT deficiency:
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate chemical structure

Chemical structure of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism:
This pentose phosphate Phosphate Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid. Electrolytes plays an important role in transferring phosphoribose groups to accommodate different reactions. Increased levels of this chemical are seen with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

Image: “Skeletal formula of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism (PRPP).” by Fvasconcellos. License: Public Domain

Pathophysiology

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

  • HPRT deficiency
  • Results in failure of salvage pathway for hypoxanthine and guanine Guanine Nucleic Acids; purines Purines A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include adenine and guanine, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as caffeine and theophylline. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism. Nucleic Acids degraded to uric acid Uric acid An oxidation product, via xanthine oxidase, of oxypurines such as xanthine and hypoxanthine. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals urate oxidase further oxidizes it to allantoin. Nephrolithiasis
  • Decreased inositol monophosphate and guanosyl monophosphate results in an increase in conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to 5-phosphoribosylamine 5-phosphoribosylamine Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism:
    • Exacerbates uric acid Uric acid An oxidation product, via xanthine oxidase, of oxypurines such as xanthine and hypoxanthine. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals urate oxidase further oxidizes it to allantoin. Nephrolithiasis overproduction
    • Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia Excessive uric acid or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees c; greater than 0. 42 mmol per liter (7. 0 mg/dl) in men or 0. 36 mmol per liter (6. 0 mg/dl) in women. Gout predisposes to gout Gout Gout is a heterogeneous metabolic disease associated with elevated serum uric acid levels (> 6.8 mg/dL) and abnormal deposits of monosodium urate in tissues. The condition is often familial and is initially characterized by painful, recurring, and usually monoarticular acute arthritis, or “gout flare,” followed later by chronic deforming arthritis. Gout and further complications.
Inositol structure

General structure of inositol:
Less inositol monophosphate is produced in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome as more uric acid Uric acid An oxidation product, via xanthine oxidase, of oxypurines such as xanthine and hypoxanthine. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals urate oxidase further oxidizes it to allantoin. Nephrolithiasis is produced, resulting in hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia Excessive uric acid or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees c; greater than 0. 42 mmol per liter (7. 0 mg/dl) in men or 0. 36 mmol per liter (6. 0 mg/dl) in women. Gout.

Image: “Inositol” by Edgar181. License: Public Domain

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase An enzyme catalyzing the formation of amp from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism deficiency

  • Deficiency in the APRT enzyme that hinders salvaging of adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids
  • Accumulation of adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids results in its oxidation into DHA → precipitates in the urinary tract Urinary tract The urinary tract is located in the abdomen and pelvis and consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The structures permit the excretion of urine from the body. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder and out through the urethra. Urinary Tract: Anatomy 
  • Can cause nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the formation of a stone, or calculus, anywhere along the urinary tract caused by precipitations of solutes in the urine. The most common type of kidney stone is the calcium oxalate stone, but other types include calcium phosphate, struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate), uric acid, and cystine stones. Nephrolithiasis and renal failure Renal failure Conditions in which the kidneys perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and maintain electrolyte balance; blood pressure; and calcium metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of proteinuria) and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Crush Syndrome

Clinical Presentation

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

  • Presents within the 1st year of life: xanthine in the urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat (orange sandy precipitate) often 1st sign
  • Neurologic dysfunction: 
    • Cognitive dysfunctions
    • Intellectual disability Disability Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for social security and workman’s compensation benefits. ABCDE Assessment
    • Spastic cerebral palsy Palsy paralysis of an area of the body, thus incapable of voluntary movement Cranial Nerve Palsies
    • Hypotonia Hypotonia Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
    • Involuntary movements
  • Psychiatric problems:
    • Behavioral dysfunctions
    • Self-mutilating behavior
  • Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia Excessive uric acid or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees c; greater than 0. 42 mmol per liter (7. 0 mg/dl) in men or 0. 36 mmol per liter (6. 0 mg/dl) in women. Gout:
    • Urolithiasis
    • Nephropathy
    • Gouty arthritis Arthritis Acute or chronic inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis
    • Tophi Tophi Msu deposit in the soft tissue and synovium. Gout
  • Hematologic: macrocytic anemia Macrocytic anemia Anemia characterized by larger than normal erythrocytes, increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin (mMCH). Anemia: Overview and Types
Wounded thumb due to the self mutilation behavior in lesch-nyhan syndrome

Wounded thumb due to the self-mutilation behavior in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Image: “Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome: Disorder of Self-mutilating Behavior” by Jathar P, Panse AM, Jathar M, Gawali PN . License: CC BY 3.0

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase An enzyme catalyzing the formation of amp from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism deficiency

  • There is no typical age for clinical onset.
  • Renal dysfunction:
    • Uric acid Uric acid An oxidation product, via xanthine oxidase, of oxypurines such as xanthine and hypoxanthine. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals urate oxidase further oxidizes it to allantoin. Nephrolithiasis nephropathy
    • Renal colic
    • Frequent infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause pathological conditions or diseases. Chronic Granulomatous Disease
    • Renal failure Renal failure Conditions in which the kidneys perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate urine, and maintain electrolyte balance; blood pressure; and calcium metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of proteinuria) and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. Crush Syndrome

Diagnosis

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

  • Laboratory tests show hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia Excessive uric acid or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees c; greater than 0. 42 mmol per liter (7. 0 mg/dl) in men or 0. 36 mmol per liter (6. 0 mg/dl) in women. Gout.
  • Urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat studies show an elevation in the urate:creatinine concentration.
  • Genetic testing Genetic Testing Detection of a mutation; genotype; karyotype; or specific alleles associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing. Myotonic Dystrophies is diagnostic.

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase An enzyme catalyzing the formation of amp from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism deficiency

  • Diagnosis is made by identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of DHA in urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat.
  • Other components of workup:
    • Physical examination of the eyes for patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with ophthalmologic symptoms
    • Laboratory studies of serum creatinine, urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat studies
    • Imaging of the kidney with CT or ultrasonography to evaluate for kidney stones Kidney stones Nephrolithiasis is the formation of a stone, or calculus, anywhere along the urinary tract caused by precipitations of solutes in the urine. The most common type of kidney stone is the calcium oxalate stone, but other types include calcium phosphate, struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate), uric acid, and cystine stones. Nephrolithiasis

Management

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

  • There is no cure for this disorder.
  • Treatments are aimed at reducing symptoms:
    • Allopurinol Allopurinol A xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases uric acid production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms. Gout Drugs for hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia Excessive uric acid or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees c; greater than 0. 42 mmol per liter (7. 0 mg/dl) in men or 0. 36 mmol per liter (6. 0 mg/dl) in women. Gout
    • Baclofen Baclofen A gamma-aminobutyric acid derivative that is a specific agonist of gaba-b receptors. It is used in the treatment of muscle spasticity, especially that due to spinal cord injuries. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission. Spasmolytics or benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines work on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor to produce inhibitory effects on the CNS. Benzodiazepines do not mimic GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans, but instead potentiate GABA activity. Benzodiazepines for spasticity Spasticity Spinal Disk Herniation
    • Behavioral and physical intervention for self-injurious behavior
  • Prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas is poor, and patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship most often die within the 1st 2 decades of life.

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase An enzyme catalyzing the formation of amp from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism deficiency

  • Treatment involves:
    • Purine restriction
    • High fluid intake
    • Avoidance of urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat alkalinization
    • Allopurinol Allopurinol A xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases uric acid production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms. Gout Drugs
    • Renal transplantation for end-stage renal disease
  • Prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas is better than for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome if treatment controls renal disease. However, there is a risk of end-stage renal disease in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who do not receive appropriate treatment.

Clinical Relevance

  • Urolithiasis: formation of stones in kidney, bladder Bladder A musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract. Urine flows from the kidneys into the bladder via the ureters, and is held there until urination. Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess, and/or urethra Urethra A tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for sperm. Urinary Tract: Anatomy. The most common type of stone is a calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes oxalate stone. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship often present with colicky flank pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways radiating to the groin Groin The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh. Male Genitourinary Examination and hematuria Hematuria Presence of blood in the urine. Renal Cell Carcinoma. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship are diagnosed using non–contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis Pelvis The pelvis consists of the bony pelvic girdle, the muscular and ligamentous pelvic floor, and the pelvic cavity, which contains viscera, vessels, and multiple nerves and muscles. The pelvic girdle, composed of 2 “hip” bones and the sacrum, is a ring-like bony structure of the axial skeleton that links the vertebral column with the lower extremities. Pelvis: Anatomy. Management depends on the size of the stone. Small stones will pass spontaneously with conservative management (hydration, analgesics); large stones require intervention with extracorporeal shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Complications include hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis Hydronephrosis is dilation of the renal collecting system as a result of the obstruction of urine outflow. Hydronephrosis can be unilateral or bilateral. Nephrolithiasis is the most common cause of hydronephrosis in young adults, while prostatic hyperplasia and neoplasm are seen in older patients. Hydronephrosis and pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis is infection affecting the renal pelvis and the renal parenchyma. This condition arises mostly as a complication of bladder infection that ascends to the upper urinary tract. Pyelonephritis can be acute or chronic (which results from persistent or chronic infections). Typical acute symptoms are flank pain, fever, and nausea with vomiting. T Pyelonephritis and Perinephric Abscess.
  • Gout Gout Gout is a heterogeneous metabolic disease associated with elevated serum uric acid levels (> 6.8 mg/dL) and abnormal deposits of monosodium urate in tissues. The condition is often familial and is initially characterized by painful, recurring, and usually monoarticular acute arthritis, or “gout flare,” followed later by chronic deforming arthritis. Gout: medical condition caused by elevated uric acid Uric acid An oxidation product, via xanthine oxidase, of oxypurines such as xanthine and hypoxanthine. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals urate oxidase further oxidizes it to allantoin. Nephrolithiasis levels and monosodium urate deposition in the tissue. The most common presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor is monoarticular acute arthritis Arthritis Acute or chronic inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis. Most often, the first metatarsophalangeal joint Metatarsophalangeal Joint Foot: Anatomy is affected. Other organs, such as the kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy can be affected. Diagnosis is confirmed with identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of urate crystals from a joint aspiration. Treatment for acute flares may include NSAIDs NSAIDS Primary vs Secondary Headaches, colchicine Colchicine A major alkaloid from colchicum autumnale l. And found also in other colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout. Gout Drugs, or glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are a class within the corticosteroid family. Glucocorticoids are chemically and functionally similar to endogenous cortisol. There are a wide array of indications, which primarily benefit from the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of this class of drugs. Glucocorticoids.
  • Tophi Tophi Msu deposit in the soft tissue and synovium. Gout: deposit of monosodium urate crystals Monosodium Urate Crystals Gout in hyperuricemic conditions. Tophi Tophi Msu deposit in the soft tissue and synovium. Gout are most commonly seen in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with gout Gout Gout is a heterogeneous metabolic disease associated with elevated serum uric acid levels (> 6.8 mg/dL) and abnormal deposits of monosodium urate in tissues. The condition is often familial and is initially characterized by painful, recurring, and usually monoarticular acute arthritis, or “gout flare,” followed later by chronic deforming arthritis. Gout and develop over time, usually appearing many years after a patient is noted to have hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia Excessive uric acid or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees c; greater than 0. 42 mmol per liter (7. 0 mg/dl) in men or 0. 36 mmol per liter (6. 0 mg/dl) in women. Gout. Tophi Tophi Msu deposit in the soft tissue and synovium. Gout can form throughout the body in locations such as joints, cartilage Cartilage Cartilage is a type of connective tissue derived from embryonic mesenchyme that is responsible for structural support, resilience, and the smoothness of physical actions. Perichondrium (connective tissue membrane surrounding cartilage) compensates for the absence of vasculature in cartilage by providing nutrition and support. Cartilage: Histology, and bones. These formations may lead to poor mobility Mobility Examination of the Breast and can cause bone Bone Bone is a compact type of hardened connective tissue composed of bone cells, membranes, an extracellular mineralized matrix, and central bone marrow. The 2 primary types of bone are compact and spongy. Bones: Structure and Types destruction.

References

  1. NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. (2019). Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. GARD. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/546/adenine-phosphoribosyltransferase-deficiency
  2. Puig, J.G., Torres Jimenez, R. (2010). Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Orphanet. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC_Exp.php?Lng=GB&Expert=510
  3. Jinnah, H.A. (2000). HPRT1 disorders. GeneReviews. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1149/
  4. Edvardsson, V.O., Sahota, A., Palsson, R. (2012). Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. GeneReviews. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK100238

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