Glyoxylate Cycle

The glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation is an anabolic pathway that is considered a variation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation. The TCA cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation occurs in plants Plants Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic, bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology, and fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology, and acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle is converted into succinate. The glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation was thought not to occur in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic due to the absence of the enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body's constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase; however, this hypothesis Hypothesis A hypothesis is a preliminary answer to a research question (i.e., a “guess” about what the results will be). There are 2 types of hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation is being explored. The glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation occurs in glyoxysomes, which are specialized peroxisomes Peroxisomes Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. The Cell: Organelles. There are no decarboxylation Decarboxylation The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound. Catabolism of Amino Acids reactions in the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation. The glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation allows cells to utilize 2 carbon units of acetate, and convert them into 4 carbon units, succinate, for energy production and biosynthesis Biosynthesis The biosynthesis of peptides and proteins on ribosomes, directed by messenger RNA, via transfer RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic amino acids. Virology. Additionally, each turn of the cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation produces a molecule of FADH2 and NADH.

Last updated: 9 May, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Function

Vertebrates

  • 2 enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes that are required for the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation are not found in vertebrates:
    • Isocitrate lyase
    • Malate synthase
  • Glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation may occur in some complex vertebrates by the participation of similar enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes.
  • However, the subject is experimental and under investigation.

Plants Plants Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

  • Seeds cannot carry out photosynthesis as they lack chloroplasts.
  • However, seeds have specific peroxisomes Peroxisomes Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. The Cell: Organelles known as glyoxysomes, where the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation can occur.
  • Glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation occurs in seeds during germination so that:
    • Lipids Lipids Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic organic molecules, which include fats, oils, sterols, and waxes. Fatty Acids and Lipids stored in seeds can be used as an energy source for the formation of carbohydrates Carbohydrates A class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of cn(H2O)n. The largest class of organic compounds, including starch; glycogen; cellulose; polysaccharides; and simple monosaccharides. Basics of Carbohydrates for the growth and development of the shoot.
    • Acetate is converted to acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle, which in turn is:
      • Utilized as a source of carbon and energy
      • Used to produce NADPH NADPH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5′-phosphate (nmn) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5′-phosphate adenosine 2. Pentose Phosphate Pathway, which drives ATP synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the electron transport chain Electron transport chain The electron transport chain (ETC) sends electrons through a series of proteins, which generate an electrochemical proton gradient that produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

Fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology

  • Glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology occurs primarily in infectious Infectious Febrile Infant species.
  • Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase levels increase upon contact with a human host.
  • Glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of microbes:
    • Enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes participating in the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation increase during a pathogenic phase.
    • Fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology lacking the enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes are less virulent.
  • The mechanism of pathogenesis of this cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology is under investigation.
  • Examples:
    • Candida Candida Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis albicans
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Cryptococcus Cryptococcus Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic, fungal infection caused by the Cryptococcus species. The principal pathogens in humans are C. neoformans (primary) and C. gattii. Cryptococcus neoformans is typically found in pigeon droppings and acquired by inhaling dust from contaminated soil. The majority of affected patients are immunocompromised. Cryptococcus/Cryptococcosis neoformans

Related videos

Reactions, Yield, and Energy Balance

Plants Plants Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic, fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology, and bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology require carbohydrates Carbohydrates A class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of cn(H2O)n. The largest class of organic compounds, including starch; glycogen; cellulose; polysaccharides; and simple monosaccharides. Basics of Carbohydrates for energy and cell wall Cell wall The outermost layer of a cell in most plants; bacteria; fungi; and algae. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the cell membrane, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (e.g., cellulose, chitin Chitin A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of acetylglucosamine. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in insects and fungi. When deacetylated it is called chitosan. Echinocandins, and glycans). The glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation enables organisms to produce carbohydrates Carbohydrates A class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of cn(H2O)n. The largest class of organic compounds, including starch; glycogen; cellulose; polysaccharides; and simple monosaccharides. Basics of Carbohydrates using acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle from the β-oxidation of fatty acids Fatty acids Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated. Fatty Acids and Lipids.

Reactions

  1. The pathway begins with 2 molecules of acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle.
  2. Citrate synthase Citrate synthase Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (citric acid cycle). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme a. Citric Acid Cycle converts 1 of the acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle molecules to citrate.
  3. Citrate is converted to isocitrate by the enzyme aconitase.
  4. Isocitrate is converted to glyoxylate and succinate.
  5. Succinate is converted to fumarate Fumarate Citric Acid Cycle by succinate dehydrogenase Succinate dehydrogenase A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of succinate to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II. Citric Acid Cycle.
  6. The next step involves the formation of 2 molecules of malate:
    • 1 molecule of malate is formed by the combination of acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle and glyoxylate.
    • The 2nd molecule is formed by the conversion of fumarate Fumarate Citric Acid Cycle to malate in the presence of fumarase.
  7. Malate dehydrogenase converts 2 malate molecules into 2 oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle molecules.
  8. 1 molecule of oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle is converted to citrate, and 1 molecule of oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle is used for gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. This metabolic pathway is more than just a reversal of glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis provides the body with glucose not obtained from food, such as during a fasting period. The production of glucose is critical for organs and cells that cannot use fat for fuel. Gluconeogenesis.
The glyoxylate cycle

Figure representing the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

Image by Lecturio.

Key enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

The 2 key enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation produce 2 malate molecules, which in turn produce 2 oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle molecules. The spare oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle molecule is used in gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. This metabolic pathway is more than just a reversal of glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis provides the body with glucose not obtained from food, such as during a fasting period. The production of glucose is critical for organs and cells that cannot use fat for fuel. Gluconeogenesis for glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance production. The 2 key enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes are:

  • Isocitrate lyase: converts isocitrate (containing 6 carbons) to succinate (containing 4 carbons) and glyoxylate
  • Malate synthase: combines acetyl CoA and glyoxylate to yield malate

Summary of the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation

  • Input: 4 carbons in the form of 2 acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle molecules
  • Output: Each turn of the cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation produces 1 NADH, 1 flavin adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids dinucleotide (FADH2), and 2 oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle molecules.
  • Does not release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology CO2
  • 2 oxidative reactions occur.
  • There is net synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance (due to the formation of an extra oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle molecule).

Energy production

  • Each cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation produces 1 molecule of FADH2 and 1 molecule of NADH.
  • Subsequently, NADH produces 2.5 ATP and FADH2 produces 1.5 ATP to yield a total of 4 ATP.

Key Differences From the Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) Cycle

The TCA cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation is the primary means of generating energy in the body.

  • Both TCA and glyoxylate cycles use acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle as starting products. The outputs of these cycles differ:
    • In the TCA cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, 1 NAD NAD+ A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5′-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5′-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). Pentose Phosphate Pathway+ molecule is reduced to yield CO2.
    • Succinate is produced in the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and is used for carbohydrate synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
  • The cycles occur in different organisms:
    • Glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation predominantly occurs in plants Plants Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic and fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology. There is emerging evidence that vertebrates have the enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes necessary for the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation to occur.
    • TCA cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation occurs in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic.
  • TCA and glyoxylate cycles have 5 enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes in common. There are some important differences between the steps, which result in different outcomes:
  • More energy is produced in the TCA cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation than in the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation.
Table: Key differences between the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and tricarboxylic acid cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
Glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Tricarboxylic acid cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
Site Glyoxysomes of plants Plants Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic, fungi Fungi A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including mushrooms; yeasts; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies. Mycology, and possibly vertebrates Mitochondria Mitochondria Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs; amino Acyl tRNA synthetases; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. The Cell: Organelles of animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic
Number of carbons Input of 4 carbons Input of 2 carbons
CO2 molecules released None 2
Number of oxidative reactions 2 4
Energy produced per cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
  • 1 NADH
  • 1 FADH2
  • 3 NADH
  • 1 FADH2
  • 1 GTP
Net glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Net synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance due to the formation of 1 extra oxaloacetate Oxaloacetate Derivatives of oxaloacetic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1, 4-carboxy aliphatic structure. Citric Acid Cycle molecule No net synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance
FADH2: flavin adenine Adenine A purine base and a fundamental unit of adenine nucleotides. Nucleic Acids dinucleotide
GTP: guanosine triphosphate

Clinical Relevance

Glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure have been identified in 2 organisms capable of surviving in macrophages Macrophages The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood monocytes. Main types are peritoneal macrophages; alveolar macrophages; histiocytes; kupffer cells of the liver; and osteoclasts. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to epithelioid cells or may fuse to form foreign body giant cells or langhans giant cells. Innate Immunity: Phagocytes and Antigen Presentation: the bacterium M. tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis and the fungus C. albicans. Enzymes Enzymes Enzymes are complex protein biocatalysts that accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed by them. Due to the body’s constant metabolic needs, the absence of enzymes would make life unsustainable, as reactions would occur too slowly without these molecules. Basics of Enzymes required for the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation to progress are not present in humans, and are, therefore, ideal targets for novel antibiotics.

  • C. albicans: ubiquitous yeast Yeast A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers’ and bakers’ yeasts are saccharomyces cerevisiae; therapeutic dried yeast is yeast, dried. Mycology that lives as a commensal as part of human skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions flora, it can become a pathogen in times when the immune system Immune system The body’s defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components. Primary Lymphatic Organs is depressed causing candidiasis Candidiasis Candida is a genus of dimorphic, opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans is part of the normal human flora and is the most common cause of candidiasis. The clinical presentation varies and can include localized mucocutaneous infections (e.g., oropharyngeal, esophageal, intertriginous, and vulvovaginal candidiasis) and invasive disease (e.g., candidemia, intraabdominal abscess, pericarditis, and meningitis). Candida/Candidiasis in humans TC. albicans utilizes the glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation to survive in environments where nutrients are scarce.  Because of its key role in the cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation, the enzyme isocitrate lyase has been targeted to produce antifungal Antifungal Azoles medication. Three compounds (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and apigenin) were found to have antifungal Antifungal Azoles activity against C. albicans when tested under glucose-depleted conditions.
  • M. tuberculosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis: an acid-fast, facultative intracellular Facultative intracellular Yersinia spp./Yersiniosis bacillus Bacillus Bacillus are aerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli. Two pathogenic species are Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) and B. cereus. Bacillus that causes the respiratory infection known as TB TB Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis. The glyoxylate cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in mycobacteria Mycobacteria Mycobacterium is a genus of the family Mycobacteriaceae in the phylum Actinobacteria. Mycobacteria comprise more than 150 species of facultative intracellular bacilli that are mostly obligate aerobes. Mycobacteria are responsible for multiple human infections including serious diseases, such as tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), leprosy (M. leprae), and M. avium complex infections. Mycobacterium is being studied to develop potential treatments for TB TB Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. The bacteria usually attack the lungs but can also damage other parts of the body. Approximately 30% of people around the world are infected with this pathogen, with the majority harboring a latent infection. Tuberculosis spreads through the air when a person with active pulmonary infection coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis.

References

  1. Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Stryer, L. (2002). The Glyoxylate Cycle Enables Plants and Bacteria to Grow on Acetate. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22383/
  2. Ahern, K., Rajagopal, I., Tan, T. (Eds.) (2019). Citric Acid Cycle & Related Pathways. In Ahern, K., et al. (Ed.) Biochemistry Free For All. Libre Texts. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Biochemistry/Book%3A_Biochemistry_Free_For_All_(Ahern_Rajagopal_and_Tan)/06%3A_Metabolism/6.02%3A_Citric_Acid_Cycle__Related_Pathways
  3. Bruce, D. (2001). Glyoxylate Cycle as Drug Target? Genome Biol 2, spotlight-20010710-01. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/gb-spotlight-20010710-01
  4. Cheah, H.L., Vuanghao, L., Sandai, D. (2014). Inhibitors of the Glyoxylate Cycle Enzyme ICL1 in Candida albicans for Potential Use as Antifungal Agents. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261997138

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Study on the Go

Lecturio Medical complements your studies with evidence-based learning strategies, video lectures, quiz questions, and more – all combined in one easy-to-use resource.

Learn even more with Lecturio:

Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.

Details