A thyroid nodule is a disordered growth of thyroid cells that produces a mass in the thyroid gland. Most thyroid nodules are benign and detected either by the patient or by the clinician on examination. In other cases, a thyroid nodule is found in radiologic imaging incidentally. Ruling out of malignancy is important. Workup includes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid ultrasound followed by radioactive iodine (RAI) uptake scan or thyroid scan if initial tests suggest the presence of hyperthyroidism. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is recommended in patients with suspicious ultrasound findings, "cold" nodules ( iodine Iodine A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126. 90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically. Thyroid Hormones uptake < surrounding tissue) on thyroid scan Thyroid Scan Nuclear Imaging, large nodules (generally > 1.5 cm), or risk factors for malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax. Management is dictated by pathology findings and can range from periodic ultrasound monitoring to surgery.
Last updated: 30 Apr, 2021
Based on TSH and ultrasound findings:
FNAB indicated in:
Based on biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma results ( Bethesda system Bethesda system A standardized reporting of results of PAP test, which includes the specimen adequacy, general categorization of findings, and results Cervical Cancer Screening diagnostic categories for reporting thyroid Thyroid The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the human body. The thyroid gland is a highly vascular, brownish-red gland located in the visceral compartment of the anterior region of the neck. Thyroid Gland: Anatomy cytopathology):
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