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Muscles of the Back: Anatomy

The back is composed of several muscles of varying sizes and functions, which are grouped into intrinsic (or primary) back muscles and extrinsic (or secondary) back muscles. This division is based on the functionality and embryologic origin of these muscle groups. The extrinsic muscles comprise the superficial and intermediate muscle groups, while the intrinsic muscles comprise the deep muscles. The deep muscles are further subdivided into superficial, intermediate, and deep muscle layers.

Last updated: Sep 1, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Extrinsic back muscles:

  • Superficial and intermediate muscles
  • Connect the axial Axial Computed Tomography (CT) skeleton with the appendicular skeleton
  • Innervated by ventral rami of spinal nerves Spinal nerves The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included. Spinal Cord: Anatomy

Intrinsic back muscles:

  • Deep muscles (subdivided further into superficial, intermediate, and deep layers)
  • Confined to the axial Axial Computed Tomography (CT) skeleton
  • Innervated by dorsal rami of spinal nerves Spinal nerves The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included. Spinal Cord: Anatomy
Table: Muscle groups of the back
Group Layer Function
Extrinsic muscles of the back Superficial layer:
  • Trapezius
  • Latissimus dorsi
  • Rhomboid major
  • Rhomboid minor
  • Levator scapulae
  • Trapezius: movements of the scapula, stabilizes the spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
  • Latissimus dorsi: adducts and internally rotates the arm Arm The arm, or “upper arm” in common usage, is the region of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the elbow joint and connects inferiorly to the forearm through the cubital fossa. It is divided into 2 fascial compartments (anterior and posterior). Arm: Anatomy
  • Rhomboids: retract the scapula
  • Levator scapula: elevates and rotates the scapula
Intermediate layer:
  • Serratus posterior superior
  • Serratus posterior inferior
Synergistic muscles of respiration Respiration The act of breathing with the lungs, consisting of inhalation, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of exhalation, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more carbon dioxide than the air taken in. Nose and Nasal Cavity: Anatomy
Intrinsic or deep (or primary) muscles of the back Superficial or spinotransversales group:
  • Splenius capitis
  • Splenius cervicis
Extensors of the cervical spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Intermediate layer or erector spinae group:
  • Spinalis
  • Longissimus
  • Iliocostalis
  • Unilaterally: laterally flexes the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
  • Bilaterally: extends the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Deep group:
  • Semispinalis capitis, cervicis, and thoracis
  • Multifidus
  • Rotatores longus and brevis
  • Interspinales
  • Intertransversarii
  • Levatores costarum
Rotation Rotation Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. X-rays and extension Extension Examination of the Upper Limbs of the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy

Extrinsic Back Muscles: Superficial Muscles

Superficial extrinsic back muscles are primarily associated with the movement of the shoulder/ arm Arm The arm, or “upper arm” in common usage, is the region of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the elbow joint and connects inferiorly to the forearm through the cubital fossa. It is divided into 2 fascial compartments (anterior and posterior). Arm: Anatomy.

Table: Superficial extrinsic back muscles
Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Action
Trapezius
  • Descending part: external occipital Occipital Part of the back and base of the cranium that encloses the foramen magnum. Skull: Anatomy protuberance, superior nuchal line, and ligament and spinous processes of C2‒C3
  • Transverse part: spinous processes of C4‒T1
  • Ascending part: spinous processes of T5‒T12
  • Descending part: lateral ⅓ of clavicle Clavicle A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone. Clavicle Fracture and acromion
  • Transverse part: scapular spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy and acromion
  • Ascending part: scapular spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Accessory nerve (CN XI) and the cervical plexus Cervical Plexus A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four cervical spinal cord segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical spinal column, infrahyoid muscles, and the diaphragm. Peripheral Nerve Injuries in the Cervicothoracic Region (C2–C4)
  • Descending part: extension Extension Examination of the Upper Limbs and rotation Rotation Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. X-rays of the head and cervical spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
  • Transverse part: moves scapula medially
  • Ascending part: moves scapula medially and caudally
Latissimus dorsi Spinous processes of T7–L5, dorsal sacrum Sacrum Five fused vertebrae forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the pelvis. It articulates superiorly with the lumbar vertebrae, inferiorly with the coccyx, and anteriorly with the ilium of the pelvis. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the pelvis. Vertebral Column: Anatomy, medial ⅓ of iliac crest, and 9th‒12th ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy Crest of lesser tubercle of the humerus Humerus Bone in humans and primates extending from the shoulder joint to the elbow joint. Arm: Anatomy Thoracodorsal nerve Thoracodorsal nerve Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy (C6–C8)
  • Extensor, adductor, and internal rotator of the humerus Humerus Bone in humans and primates extending from the shoulder joint to the elbow joint. Arm: Anatomy
  • Auxiliary respiratory muscle
Rhomboid major Spinous processes of T2–T5 Medial border of the scapula Dorsal scapular nerve Dorsal scapular nerve Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy (C5) Fixes and moves the scapula cranially and medially
Rhomboid minor Spinous processes of C7‒T1 Medial border of the scapula
Levator scapulae Transverse processes and posterior tubercles of C1–C4 Superior angle of the scapula Dorsal scapular nerve Dorsal scapular nerve Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy (C5) and ventral rami C3–C4

Extrinsic Back Muscles: Intermediate Muscles

Intermediate extrinsic back muscles are primarily involved with rib/thoracic cage motion.

Table: Intermediate extrinsic back muscles
Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Action
Serratus posterior superior Spinous processes of C6–T2 Costal angle of ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy 2–5 Ventral rami of spinal nerves Spinal nerves The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included. Spinal Cord: Anatomy T1– T4 T4 The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. Thyroid Hormones (intercostal nerves)
Serratus posterior inferior Spinous processes T11–L2 Lower edge of ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy 9–12 Ventral rami of spinal nerves Spinal nerves The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included. Spinal Cord: Anatomy T9–T12 (intercostal nerves)

Intrinsic Back Muscles: Superficial layer

The intrinsic, or deep, back muscles are grouped into 3 layers: superficial, intermediate, and deep; they are primarily involved in moving the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy. The superficial layer is primarily responsible for the movement of the cervical spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy.

Table: Spinotransversales group
Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Action
Splenius capitis Spinous processes of C7– T3 T3 A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5′ position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly t3. Thyroid Hormones and the supraspinal ligament Lateral half of superior nuchal line and the mastoid process Dorsal rami of C1–C6 Extensor and lateral bending of the cervical spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy and the head
Splenius cervicis Spinous processes of T3 T3 A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5′ position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly t3. Thyroid Hormones–T6 and the supraspinal ligament Posterior tubercle of the transverse processes of C1–C3
The superficial layer of the intrinsic back muscles biodigital

The superficial layer of the intrinsic back muscles

Image by BioDigital, edited by Lecturio

Intrinsic Back Muscles: Intermediate Layer

Intermediate layer (intrinsic muscles): The 3 muscles of the intermediate layer make up the erector spinae group.

Table: Erector spinae group
Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Action
Spinalis Thoracis: spinous process of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae A group of twelve vertebrae connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region. Vertebral Column: Anatomy Spinous process of upper thoracic vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae A group of twelve vertebrae connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region. Vertebral Column: Anatomy Dorsal rami of spinal nerves Spinal nerves The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included. Spinal Cord: Anatomy
  • Acts unilaterally to laterally flex the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
  • Acts bilaterally to extend the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy and head
Cervicis: nuchal ligament and C7 spinous process Spinous process of C2–C7
Capitis: transverse processes of C4–T6 Superior and inferior nuchal lines
Longissimus Thoracic: dorsal sacrum Sacrum Five fused vertebrae forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the pelvis. It articulates superiorly with the lumbar vertebrae, inferiorly with the coccyx, and anteriorly with the ilium of the pelvis. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the pelvis. Vertebral Column: Anatomy, spinous processes of lumbar/inferior thoracic spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy Accessory processes of the lumbar spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy, transverse processes of thoracic spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy, and costal angle of ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy 2–12 Dorsal rami T3 T3 A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5′ position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly t3. Thyroid Hormones–T5
Cervical: transverse processes of T1–T6 Cervical: posterior tubercle of transverse processes of C2–C5 Cervical: dorsal rami C3–T2
Capitis: transverse processes of C3– T3 T3 A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5′ position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly t3. Thyroid Hormones Capitis: mastoid process of the temporal bone Temporal bone Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull). Jaw and Temporomandibular Joint: Anatomy Capitis: dorsal rami C1–C3
Iliocostalis Lumbar: iliac crest, dorsal sacrum Sacrum Five fused vertebrae forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the pelvis. It articulates superiorly with the lumbar vertebrae, inferiorly with the coccyx, and anteriorly with the ilium of the pelvis. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the pelvis. Vertebral Column: Anatomy, and the thoracolumbar fascia Thoracolumbar fascia Posterior Abdominal Wall: Anatomy Costal angle of ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy 7–12 Dorsal rami T9–L1
Thoracic: costal angle of ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy 7–12 Costal angle of ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy 1–6 Dorsal rami T2–T9
Cervical: costal angle of ribs Ribs A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs. Chest Wall: Anatomy 3–6 Posterior tubercle of transverse processes of C3–C6 Dorsal rami T1–T2

Intrinsic Back Muscles: Deep Layer

The deepest layer of the deep back muscles is attached to the transverse and spinous processes of the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy and facilitates movement of the spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy.

Table: Deepest layer of back muscles
Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Action
Semispinalis Capitis: articular processes of C4–C6 and the transverse processes of C7–T6 Between the superior and inferior nuchal lines Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves Spinal nerves The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included. Spinal Cord: Anatomy Extension Extension Examination of the Upper Limbs and contralateral rotation Rotation Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. X-rays of the head and vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Cervicis: posterior surfaces of the transverse processes of T1–T6 Spines of C2–C5
Thoracis: transverse processes of T6–T10 Spines of C6– T4 T4 The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. Thyroid Hormones
Multifidus Dorsal sacrum Sacrum Five fused vertebrae forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the pelvis. It articulates superiorly with the lumbar vertebrae, inferiorly with the coccyx, and anteriorly with the ilium of the pelvis. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the pelvis. Vertebral Column: Anatomy, iliac crest, posterior sacroiliac ligaments, mammillary processes, transverse processes of T1–T12, and the articular processes C4–C7 Spinous processes of C2–L5 Dorsal rami C3– S3 S3 Heart Sounds Extend the complete vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Rotatores Transverse processes of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy Spinous processes of adjoining superior vertebra Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves Spinal nerves The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included. Spinal Cord: Anatomy Stabilize the vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Interspinales Spinous processes of C3–T1, T2–L1, and L2– S1 S1 Heart Sounds Spinous processes of C2–C7, T1–T12, and L1–L5 Extend the complete vertebral column Vertebral column The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Intertransversarii Medial lumbar: mammillary and accessory processes of all lumbar vertebrae Lumbar vertebrae Vertebrae in the region of the lower back below the thoracic vertebrae and above the sacral vertebrae. Vertebral Column: Anatomy Adjoining osseous structures of the lumbar spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy Lateral flexion Flexion Examination of the Upper Limbs of the spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy
Thoracic: transverse processes of T10–T12 Transverse processes of T11–12 and at the accessory processes of L1
Posterior cervical: C1–C7, posterior tubercle of the transverse processes Posterior tubercles of the respective adjoining vertebra
Levatores costarum Transverse processes of C7–T11
  • Short fibers into the respective rib 1 segment below
  • Long fibers: 2 segments below
Extension Extension Examination of the Upper Limbs of the thoracic spine Spine The human spine, or vertebral column, is the most important anatomical and functional axis of the human body. It consists of 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae and is limited cranially by the skull and caudally by the sacrum. Vertebral Column: Anatomy

Clinical Relevance

  • Lumbago (low back pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways): Low back pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways is 1 of the most common reasons for visits to medical providers. The pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways is most commonly related to the musculoskeletal system and increases with age. Common causes include improper lifting, poor posture, lack of regular Regular Insulin exercise, skeletal fracture Fracture A fracture is a disruption of the cortex of any bone and periosteum and is commonly due to mechanical stress after an injury or accident. Open fractures due to trauma can be a medical emergency. Fractures are frequently associated with automobile accidents, workplace injuries, and trauma. Overview of Bone Fractures, discogenic disease, or degenerative arthritis Arthritis Acute or chronic inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis. Intrinsic back muscle wasting Muscle Wasting Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and increased fatigability are common in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with chronic low back pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways
  • Triangle of auscultation: The triangle of auscultation is an area over the posterior thorax where the breathing sounds are most audible due to the relative thinning of the musculature. The borders of the triangle are defined by:
    • Superiorly: inferior border of trapezius
    • Inferiorly: latissimus dorsi muscle
    • Laterally: medial border of the scapula
  • Suboccipital triangle: The suboccipital triangle is a pyramid-shaped anatomical area that contains the vertebral artery Vertebral artery The first branch of the subclavian artery with distribution to muscles of the neck; vertebrae; spinal cord; cerebellum; and interior of the cerebrum. Lateral Medullary Syndrome (Wallenberg Syndrome) and suboccipital nerve. The triangle is located at the posterolateral occipital Occipital Part of the back and base of the cranium that encloses the foramen magnum. Skull: Anatomy scalp. The suboccipital nerve may play a role in cervicogenic headaches and occipital Occipital Part of the back and base of the cranium that encloses the foramen magnum. Skull: Anatomy neuralgia.

References

  1. Drake, R.L., Vogl, A.W., & Mitchell, A.W.M. (2014). Gray’s Anatomy for Students (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA:  Churchill Livingstone.
  2. Jenkins D.B. (2009). Chapter 13. Elsevier Health Sciences. Hollinshead’s Functional Anatomy of the Limbs and Back (9th ed.pp 219-228).

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