Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, or emesis, is the forceful oral expulsion of gastric contents. Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia is a common presenting symptom in pediatrics. The frequency and characteristics of vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia may point toward a specific pathology, just as its presence can be another symptom of a greater clinical situation. The majority of vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia symptoms are benign Benign Fibroadenoma and self-limited. A good history and physical examination can bring into focus the underlying cause and workup. Management is with antiemetics Antiemetics Antiemetics are medications used to treat and/or prevent nausea and vomiting. These drugs act on different target receptors. The main classes include benzodiazepines, corticosteroids, atypical antipsychotics, cannabinoids, and antagonists of the following receptors: serotonin, dopamine, and muscarinic and neurokinin receptors. Antiemetics and treating the underlying cause, if needed. The most common complications are dehydration Dehydration The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism. Volume Depletion and Dehydration and malnutrition Malnutrition Malnutrition is a clinical state caused by an imbalance or deficiency of calories and/or micronutrients and macronutrients. The 2 main manifestations of acute severe malnutrition are marasmus (total caloric insufficiency) and kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition with characteristic edema). Malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries.
Last updated: Sep 26, 2022
|Weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery||
|Dry mucosa (first sign)||–||+/– (looks dry)||+ (looks parched)|
|Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions turgor (last sign)||+||+/–||– (tenting)|
|Anterior fontanelle Fontanelle Any of six membrane-covered openings between the cranial sutures in the incompletely ossified skull of the fetus or newborn infant. The fontanelles normally close sometime after birth. Skull: Anatomy depression||–||+||+/++|
|Mental status||Normal||Fatigued/irritable||Apathy Apathy Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time. Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome/ lethargy Lethargy A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to depression or drug addiction. Hyponatremia|
|Enophthalmos Enophthalmos Recession of the eyeball into the orbit. Marfan Syndrome||–||+||+|
|Breathing||Normal||Deep, maybe tachypneic||Deep and tachypneic|
|Heart rate Heart rate The number of times the heart ventricles contract per unit of time, usually per minute. Cardiac Physiology||Normal||Increased||Very high|
|Hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension||–||+||+|
|Urinary output||Decreased||Oliguria Oliguria Decreased urine output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0. 5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age. Renal Potassium Regulation||Oliguria Oliguria Decreased urine output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0. 5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age. Renal Potassium Regulation/ anuria Anuria Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (ureter) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present. Acute Kidney Injury|
|Nature of vomitus||Approximate level of obstruction|
|Nonbilious acidic vomitus||Distal to stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy, proximal to duodenum Duodenum The shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers. Small Intestine: Anatomy|
|Bilious vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia||Distal to 2nd part of duodenum Duodenum The shortest and widest portion of the small intestine adjacent to the pylorus of the stomach. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers. Small Intestine: Anatomy|
|Feculent vomitus||Obstruction in the large bowel|
|Nondigested food content||Proximal obstruction|
Severe dehydration Dehydration The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism. Volume Depletion and Dehydration can cause hypoperfusion of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification and vital organs and is considered a medical emergency to be addressed rapidly.
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