Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection caused by the gram-negative spirochete Spirochete Treponema is a gram-negative, microaerophilic spirochete. Owing to its very thin structure, it is not easily seen on Gram stain, but can be visualized using dark-field microscopy. This spirochete contains endoflagella, which allow for a characteristic corkscrew movement. Treponema Borrelia Borrelia Borrelia are gram-negative microaerophilic spirochetes. Owing to their small size, they are not easily seen on Gram stain but can be visualized using dark-field microscopy, Giemsa, or Wright stain. Spirochetes are motile and move in a characteristic spinning fashion due to axial filaments in the periplasmic space. Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme disease is transmitted by the black-legged Ixodes tick (commonly known as a deer tick Deer tick Borrelia), which is only found in specific geographic regions. Patient presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor can vary depending on the stage of the disease and may include a characteristic erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion migrans rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Neurologic, cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR), ocular, and joint manifestations are also common in later stages. Diagnosis relies on clinical findings and tick exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment, and is supported by serological testing. Antibiotics are used for treatment. Avoidance of tick exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment is key to prevention in endemic areas.
Last updated: 21 Jan, 2022
The incubation Incubation The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic. Rabies Virus period for Lyme disease is 3–30 days ( mean Mean Mean is the sum of all measurements in a data set divided by the number of measurements in that data set. Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion of 7 days). The clinical manifestations of Lyme disease are broken down into 3 stages: early localized disease, early disseminated disease, and late disease.
Symptoms appear in 1–5 weeks and resolve in approximately 30 days.
Symptoms develop in weeks to months in untreated patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.
Symptoms develop in months to years in untreated patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.
Common symptoms of Lyme disease can be remembered by the mnemonic phrase “a key Lyme pie to the FACE.”
Laboratory tests are only significant in conjunction with the clinical history due to a high false-positive and false-negative rate.
Intravenous (IV) antibiotics:
|Asymptomatic patient with a tick bite requires no prophylactic treatment unless:||If meets criteria, then must receive prophylactic doxycycline within 72 hours of bite|
|Early disseminated disease:|
|Facial nerve Facial nerve The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions palsy Palsy paralysis of an area of the body, thus incapable of voluntary movement Cranial Nerve Palsies or joint involvement|
|Cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) and neurologic manifestations||Intravenous ceftriaxone Ceftriaxone A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic and cefotaxime derivative with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears. Cephalosporins|
|Reinfection||Same antibiotic as recommended for a primary infection Primary infection Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2|
Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.
Lecturio Premium gives you full access to all content & features
Verify your email now to get a free trial.
Lecturio Premium gives you full access to all contents and features—including Lecturio’s Qbank with up-to-date board-style questions.