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Metabolic Alkalosis

The renal system is responsible for eliminating the daily load of non- volatile acids Volatile acids Acid-Base Balance, which is approximately 70 millimoles per day. This daily load comes primarily from anaerobic metabolism, absorption Absorption Absorption involves the uptake of nutrient molecules and their transfer from the lumen of the GI tract across the enterocytes and into the interstitial space, where they can be taken up in the venous or lymphatic circulation. Digestion and Absorption of acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance, and excretion of base from the GI system. Metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis develops when there is an increase in serum HCO3- levels. Metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis also occurs when there is an increased loss of acid, either renally or through the upper GI tract (e.g., vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia), increased intake of HCO3-, or a reduced ability to secrete HCO3- when needed. Respiratory compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis occurs very quickly (within minutes) and mitigates changes in pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance from the primary metabolic disorder. Management is aimed at correcting the underlying etiology.

Last updated: 25 Jan, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis is the process that results in the loss of hydrogen ions (H+) or the gain of HCO3. In primary metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis, arterial blood gas Arterial blood gas Respiratory Alkalosis will show:

  • pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance > 7.4 
  • Partial pressure Partial pressure The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. Gas Exchange of CO2 (PCO2) > 40 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg 
  • HCO3 > 28 mEq/L

Epidemiology

  • The most common acid-base disturbance in hospitalized patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: varies, depending on etiology
  • Mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status
    • 45% when pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance > 7.55
    • 80% when pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance > 7.65

Etiology

  • Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia and/or nasogastric suctioning
  • Ingestion of non-absorbable antacids
  • Mineralocorticoid excess:
    • Primary hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism is defined as the increased secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Hyperaldosteronism may be primary (resulting from autonomous secretion), or secondary (resulting from physiological secretion due to stimulation of the RAAS). Classically, hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyperaldosteronism
    • Cushing’s syndrome
  • Loop or thiazide Thiazide Heterocyclic compounds with sulfur and nitrogen in the ring. This term commonly refers to the benzothiadiazines that inhibit sodium-potassium-chloride symporters and are used as diuretics. Hyponatremia diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication
  • Bartter and Gitelman syndromes
  • Effective arterial blood volume Effective arterial blood volume Renal Sodium and Water Regulation (prerenal states):
    • Renal artery Renal artery A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters. Glomerular Filtration stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)
    • Congestive heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)
    • Cirrhosis Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic parenchymal necrosis and scarring (fibrosis) most commonly due to hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. Patients may present with jaundice, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly. Cirrhosis can also cause complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Cirrhosis

Acid-base Review

Acid-base disorders are classified according to the primary disturbance (respiratory or metabolic) and the presence or absence of compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis.

Identifying the primary disturbance

Consider pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance, PCO2, and HCO3 to determine the primary disturbance. 

  • Normal values:
    • pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance: 7.35–7.45
    • PCO2: 35–45 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg
    • HCO3: 22–28 mEq/L
  • Difference between “-emia” and “-osis”:
  • Primary (uncompensated) respiratory disorders: 
    • Disorders caused by abnormalities in PCO2
    • Both pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance and PCO2 are abnormal, in opposite directions 
    • Primary respiratory acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance < 7.35 and PCO2 > 45
    • Primary respiratory alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis: pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance > 7.45 and PCO2 < 35
  • Primary (uncompensated) metabolic disorders: 
    • Disorders caused by abnormalities in HCO3 
    • Both pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance and PCO2 are abnormal, in the same direction. 
    • Primary uncompensated metabolic acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis:
      • pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance < 7.35 and PCO2 < 40 
      • Think: “So the acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis is not due to ↑ CO2; it must be due to ↓ serum HCO3”→ metabolic acidosis Metabolic acidosis The renal system is responsible for eliminating the daily load of non-volatile acids, which is approximately 70 millimoles per day. Metabolic acidosis occurs when there is an increase in the levels of new non-volatile acids (e.g., lactic acid), renal loss of HCO3-, or ingestion of toxic alcohols. Metabolic Acidosis
      • Confirm by looking at HCO3: will be low (< 22 mEq/L)
    • Primary uncompensated metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis
      • pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance > 7.45 and PCO2 > 40
      • Think: “So the alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis is not due to ↓ CO2; it must be due to ↑ serum HCO3” → metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis
      • Confirm by looking at HCO3: will be high (> 28 mEq/L)
  • Simple disorders:
    • The presence of any 1 of the above disorders with appropriate compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis
    • Respiratory disorders are compensated by renal mechanisms.
    • Metabolic disorders are compensated by respiratory mechanisms.
  • Mixed disorders: presence of 2 primary disorders

Compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis

When a patient develops acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis or alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis, the body will try to compensate. Oftentimes, compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis will result in normal pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance.

  • In primary metabolic acid-base disorders, the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy may try to compensate in an attempt to normalize the pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance.
    • Lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy respond to metabolic acidosis Acidosis A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up. Respiratory Acidosis by ventilation Ventilation The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing
    • Lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy respond to metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis by ventilation Ventilation The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing
  • Interpreting serum HCO3 levels:

Pathophysiology

Generation of metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis

  • ↑ Upper GI losses of H+:
    • Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
    • Nasogastric suction
  • ↑ Renal losses of H+:
    • Mineralocorticoid excess: aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia stimulates reabsorption of Na+ and excretion of H+ and K+
      • Cushing’s syndrome ( hypercortisolism Hypercortisolism Cushing’s syndrome or hypercortisolism is a disorder characterized by features resulting from chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Cushing’s syndrome may be exogenous, due to chronic glucocorticoid intake, or endogenous, due to increased adrenal secretion of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production from the pituitary gland or ectopic sources. Cushing Syndrome)
      • Conn syndrome Conn Syndrome Hyperaldosteronism (primary hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism is defined as the increased secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Hyperaldosteronism may be primary (resulting from autonomous secretion), or secondary (resulting from physiological secretion due to stimulation of the RAAS). Classically, hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyperaldosteronism)
      • Licorice ingestion (glycyrrhizic acid)
      • Liddle syndrome Liddle syndrome Liddle syndrome, a type of pseudohyperaldosteronism, is a rare cause of secondary hypertension. Liddle syndrome results from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the genes that encode the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits, also known as the “collecting tubule sodium channel” or “amiloride-sensitive sodium channel.” The activity of ENAC is increased, leading to sodium and water retention. Liddle Syndrome: ↑ activity of epithelial Na+ channels Channels The Cell: Cell Membrane ( ENaC ENaC Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing epithelial cells that line the distal nephron; the distal colon; salivary ducts; sweat glands; and the lung. They are amiloride-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, blood volume, and blood pressure. Liddle Syndrome channels Channels The Cell: Cell Membrane) (reabsorb Na+) → mimics the activity of mineralocorticoid excess
    • Loop and thiazide Thiazide Heterocyclic compounds with sulfur and nitrogen in the ring. This term commonly refers to the benzothiadiazines that inhibit sodium-potassium-chloride symporters and are used as diuretics. Hyponatremia diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication: ↑ distal tubular delivery of Na+ → ↑ distal secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies of H+ and K+
    • Bartter syndrome Bartter syndrome Bartter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the kidneys and presents either antenatally with severe or life-threatening manifestations or in childhood or adulthood with a milder course, depending on the genetic defect. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Bartter Syndrome: genetic impairment of NaCl reabsorption in the loop of Henle Loop of Henle The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the kidney medulla, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the proximal kidney tubule and the distal kidney tubule. Tubular System (mimics the action of loop diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication)
    • Gitelman syndrome Gitelman syndrome Gitelman syndrome is a rare genetic autosomal recessive disorder that affects the sodium-chloride cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron and causes electrolyte abnormalities. The syndrome presents clinically with symptoms of hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia. Gitelman Syndrome: genetic impairment of NaCl reabsorption in the distal tubule (mimics the action of thiazide Thiazide Heterocyclic compounds with sulfur and nitrogen in the ring. This term commonly refers to the benzothiadiazines that inhibit sodium-potassium-chloride symporters and are used as diuretics. Hyponatremia diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication)
  • Hypokalemia Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is defined as plasma potassium (K+) concentration < 3.5 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain plasma concentration between 3.5-5.2 mEq/L despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hypokalemia can be due to renal losses, GI losses, transcellular shifts, or poor dietary intake. Hypokalemia leading to an intracellular shift of H+:
    • K+/H+ antiporter Antiporter Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is ‘powered’ by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient. The Cell: Cell Membrane: K+ moves out of the cell and H+ moves into the cell.
    • HCO3 is left behind in the extracellular space.
    • Within the kidney, this intracellular shift of H+ causes:
      • ↑ Renal loss of H+
      • ↑ Renal reabsorption/ regeneration Regeneration The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue. Wound Healing of HCO3 
  • ↑ HCO3 intake:
    • Excessive antacids (e.g., calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate Carbonic acid calcium salt. An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement. Hypocalcemia) or sodium Sodium A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. Hyponatremia bicarbonate Bicarbonate Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the ph of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity. Electrolytes pills
    • Calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes-alkali syndrome (previously known as milk-alkali syndrome)
  • Contraction alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis:
    • Decreased extracellular volume + stable HCO3 = ↑ HCO3 concentration
    • Caused by any loss of fluid with a low HCO3 content (e.g., loop diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication)

Maintaining metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis

The kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy have an extensive ability to upregulate HCO3 elimination Elimination The initial damage and destruction of tumor cells by innate and adaptive immunity. Completion of the phase means no cancer growth. Cancer Immunotherapy; therefore, a pathological process needs to be present for metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis to be maintained. Alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis is maintained via decreased HCO3 excretion or increased HCO3 reabsorption.

  • ↓ HCO3 excretion can be caused by:
    • Effective arterial blood volume Effective arterial blood volume Renal Sodium and Water Regulation (prerenal states):
      • Na+ or K+ are required to secrete HCO3 (to maintain electroneutrality).
      • Renal blood flow Renal blood flow The amount of the renal blood flow that is going to the functional renal tissue, i.e., parts of the kidney that are involved in production of urine. Glomerular Filtration → stimulates Na+reabsorption → ↓ Na+ in the tubules → limits the ability of HCO3 to remain in the tubules
      • Renal blood flow Renal blood flow The amount of the renal blood flow that is going to the functional renal tissue, i.e., parts of the kidney that are involved in production of urine. Glomerular Filtration → ↓ glomerular filtration Glomerular filtration The kidneys are primarily in charge of the maintenance of water and solute homeostasis through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion. Glomerular filtration is the process of converting the systemic blood supply into a filtrate, which will ultimately become the urine. Glomerular Filtration of HCO3 → ↓ HCO3 in the tubules for excretion
      • Causes: hypovolemia Hypovolemia Sepsis in Children, heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR), cirrhosis Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic parenchymal necrosis and scarring (fibrosis) most commonly due to hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. Patients may present with jaundice, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly. Cirrhosis can also cause complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome Nephrotic syndrome Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by severe proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral edema. In contrast, the nephritic syndromes present with hematuria, variable loss of renal function, and hypertension, although there is sometimes overlap of > 1 glomerular disease in the same individual. Nephrotic Syndrome
    • Hypochloremia Hypochloremia Electrolytes (e.g., laxative Laxative Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve constipation. Hypokalemia abuse):
      • Cl is exchanged for HCO3 in the collecting ducts.
      • ↓ Distal Cl → limits the ability for HCO3 secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies
  • ↑ H+ secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies/HCO3 reabsorption/ regeneration Regeneration The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue. Wound Healing in the collecting ducts:
    • Stimulated by hypokalemia Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is defined as plasma potassium (K+) concentration < 3.5 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain plasma concentration between 3.5-5.2 mEq/L despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hypokalemia can be due to renal losses, GI losses, transcellular shifts, or poor dietary intake. Hypokalemia (H+/K+-ATPase)
    • Stimulated by ↑ distal tubular Na+ delivery in the setting of high aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia:
      • In prerenal states, aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia is ↑ in an attempt to ↑ blood delivery to the kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy
      • Aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia ↑ H+ and K+ secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies in exchange for Na+ when it senses ↑ Na+ in the collecting ducts
      • Examples: loop/ thiazide Thiazide Heterocyclic compounds with sulfur and nitrogen in the ring. This term commonly refers to the benzothiadiazines that inhibit sodium-potassium-chloride symporters and are used as diuretics. Hyponatremia diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication, Bartter/Gitelman syndromes
Relationship between plasma ph and plasma hco3- in uncompensated metabolic alkalosis

Relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship between plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance and plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products HCO3 in uncompensated metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis (1). Notice how the increase of HCO3 moves along the PCO2.

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Repiratory compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis

Compensatory respiratory acidosis Respiratory acidosis The respiratory system is responsible for eliminating the volatile acid carbon dioxide (CO2), which is produced via aerobic metabolism. In the setting of hypoventilation, this acid load is not adequately blown off, and respiratory acidosis occurs. Renal compensation occurs after 3-5 days, as the kidneys attempt to increase the serum bicarbonate levels. Respiratory Acidosis occurs in response to metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis.

  • Hypoventilation → ↓ alveolar ventilation Alveolar ventilation Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing→ ↑ PaCO2 → ↓ pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance
  • Total process is relatively fast:
    • Occurs within minutes 
    • Full effect is seen within 24 hours.
    • Due to the speed of compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis, the degree of compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis is not used to differentiate acute versus chronic metabolic acidosis Metabolic acidosis The renal system is responsible for eliminating the daily load of non-volatile acids, which is approximately 70 millimoles per day. Metabolic acidosis occurs when there is an increase in the levels of new non-volatile acids (e.g., lactic acid), renal loss of HCO3-, or ingestion of toxic alcohols. Metabolic Acidosis.
  • Change in PaCO2 can be estimated by the following:
    • 1 mEq/L ↑ HCO3causes 0.7 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg ↑ PaCO2
    • PaCO2 = HCO3 + 10
    • The highest possible PaCO2 from respiratory compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis alone is approximately 55 mm MM Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant condition of plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes) primarily seen in the elderly. Monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells results in cytokine-driven osteoclastic activity and excessive secretion of IgG antibodies. Multiple Myeloma Hg.
Respiratory compensation of metabolic alkalosis

Respiratory compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis of metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis:
As PCO2 increases, the curve shifts up and to the left along the “blood-buffer line” (2). As the curve shifts, the pH pH The quantitative measurement of the acidity or basicity of a solution. Acid-Base Balance decreases towards normal.

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Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

The clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor is dependent on the underlying etiology. Symptoms may include:

  • Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
  • BP abnormalities:
    • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension (primary mineralocorticoid excess)
    • Hypotension Hypotension Hypotension is defined as low blood pressure, specifically < 90/60 mm Hg, and is most commonly a physiologic response. Hypotension may be mild, serious, or life threatening, depending on the cause. Hypotension (↓ effective circulating volume Effective circulating volume Renal Sodium and Water Regulation)
  • Hypokalemia Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is defined as plasma potassium (K+) concentration < 3.5 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain plasma concentration between 3.5-5.2 mEq/L despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hypokalemia can be due to renal losses, GI losses, transcellular shifts, or poor dietary intake. Hypokalemia
  • Hypocalcemia Hypocalcemia Hypocalcemia, a serum calcium < 8.5 mg/dL, can result from various conditions. The causes may include hypoparathyroidism, drugs, disorders leading to vitamin D deficiency, and more. Calcium levels are regulated and affected by different elements such as dietary intake, parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D, pH, and albumin. Presentation can range from an asymptomatic (mild deficiency) to a life-threatening condition (acute, significant deficiency). Hypocalcemia:
    • Tetany Tetany A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from hypocalcemia or reduced serum levels of magnesium that may be associated with hyperventilation; hypoparathyroidism; rickets; uremia; or other conditions. Hypocalcemia
    • Chvostek sign: contraction of facial muscles Facial muscles The facial muscles (also called mimetic muscles) control facial expression and are supplied by the facial nerve. Most of them originate from the skull and attach to the skin around the facial openings, which serve as a method to group or classify them. Facial Muscles: Anatomy when the facial nerve Facial nerve The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and convey afferent information for taste from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and for touch from the external ear. The 12 Cranial Nerves: Overview and Functions is tapped
    • Trousseau sign: carpopedal spasm Carpopedal Spasm Hypoparathyroidism with inflation of the BP cuff
    • Changes in mental status/ seizures Seizures A seizure is abnormal electrical activity of the neurons in the cerebral cortex that can manifest in numerous ways depending on the region of the brain affected. Seizures consist of a sudden imbalance that occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in cortical neurons, creating a net excitation. The 2 major classes of seizures are focal and generalized. Seizures
  • Findings consistent with a prerenal state: 
    • Congestive heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)
      • Chest pain Chest Pain Chest pain is one of the most common and challenging complaints that may present in an inpatient and outpatient setting. The differential diagnosis of chest pain is large and includes cardiac, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, musculoskeletal, and psychiatric etiologies. Chest Pain
      • Dyspnea Dyspnea Dyspnea is the subjective sensation of breathing discomfort. Dyspnea is a normal manifestation of heavy physical or psychological exertion, but also may be caused by underlying conditions (both pulmonary and extrapulmonary). Dyspnea on exertion
      • Jugular venous distension Jugular Venous Distension Cardiovascular Examination
      • Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema is a condition caused by excess fluid within the lung parenchyma and alveoli as a consequence of a disease process. Based on etiology, pulmonary edema is classified as cardiogenic or noncardiogenic. Patients may present with progressive dyspnea, orthopnea, cough, or respiratory failure. Pulmonary Edema (e.g., crackles on lung exam)
      • Peripheral edema Peripheral edema Peripheral edema is the swelling of the lower extremities, namely, legs, feet, and ankles. Edema
    • Cirrhosis Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic parenchymal necrosis and scarring (fibrosis) most commonly due to hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. Patients may present with jaundice, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly. Cirrhosis can also cause complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, portal hypertension, portal vein thrombosis, and hepatorenal syndrome. Cirrhosis:
      • Jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is the abnormal yellowing of the skin and/or sclera caused by the accumulation of bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is caused by either an increase in bilirubin production or a decrease in the hepatic uptake, conjugation, or excretion of bilirubin. Jaundice
      • Ascites Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that occurs due to an osmotic and/or hydrostatic pressure imbalance secondary to portal hypertension (cirrhosis, heart failure) or non-portal hypertension (hypoalbuminemia, malignancy, infection). Ascites
      • Hepatomegaly with/without splenomegaly Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is pathologic enlargement of the spleen that is attributable to numerous causes, including infections, hemoglobinopathies, infiltrative processes, and outflow obstruction of the portal vein. Splenomegaly
      • Telangiectasias Telangiectasias Ataxia-telangiectasia

Diagnosis

The etiology of metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis is usually ascertainable from the history alone.  Urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat Cl can be helpful in cases in which the patient is reluctant to provide a full history (e.g., self-induced vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia in eating disorders) or for less common etiologies (e.g., Conn, Bartter, and Gitelman syndromes).

Urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat chloride Chloride Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion. Electrolytes:

  • Urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat Cl < 20 mEq/L: body Cl is also depleted, typically in volume depletion Volume depletion Volume status is a balance between water and solutes, the majority of which is Na. Volume depletion refers to a loss of both water and Na, whereas dehydration refers only to a loss of water. Volume depletion can be caused by GI losses, renal losses, bleeding, poor oral Na intake, or third spacing of fluids. Volume Depletion and Dehydration:
    • Vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
    • Nasogastric suction
  • Urine Urine Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the urethra. Bowen Disease and Erythroplasia of Queyrat Cl > 20 mEq/L: Body Cl level is normal, typically in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with volume expansion:
    • Mineralocorticoid excess:
      • Cushing’s syndrome ( hypercortisolism Hypercortisolism Cushing’s syndrome or hypercortisolism is a disorder characterized by features resulting from chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Cushing’s syndrome may be exogenous, due to chronic glucocorticoid intake, or endogenous, due to increased adrenal secretion of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production from the pituitary gland or ectopic sources. Cushing Syndrome)
      • Conn syndrome Conn Syndrome Hyperaldosteronism (primary hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism is defined as the increased secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Hyperaldosteronism may be primary (resulting from autonomous secretion), or secondary (resulting from physiological secretion due to stimulation of the RAAS). Classically, hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyperaldosteronism)
      • Licorice ingestion (glycyrrhizic acid)
      • Liddle syndrome Liddle syndrome Liddle syndrome, a type of pseudohyperaldosteronism, is a rare cause of secondary hypertension. Liddle syndrome results from autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the genes that encode the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits, also known as the “collecting tubule sodium channel” or “amiloride-sensitive sodium channel.” The activity of ENAC is increased, leading to sodium and water retention. Liddle Syndrome
      • Bartter and Gitelman syndromes
    • Severe hypokalemia Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is defined as plasma potassium (K+) concentration < 3.5 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain plasma concentration between 3.5-5.2 mEq/L despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hypokalemia can be due to renal losses, GI losses, transcellular shifts, or poor dietary intake. Hypokalemia (K+ < 2)

Other tests:

Management

Treatment is aimed at the underlying etiology.

  • Attempt to improve renal HCO3 excretion to resolve alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis:
    • In patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship without edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema (true volume depletion Volume depletion Volume status is a balance between water and solutes, the majority of which is Na. Volume depletion refers to a loss of both water and Na, whereas dehydration refers only to a loss of water. Volume depletion can be caused by GI losses, renal losses, bleeding, poor oral Na intake, or third spacing of fluids. Volume Depletion and Dehydration): volume repletion with isotonic Isotonic Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. Renal Sodium and Water Regulation saline
    • In patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with ↓ effective circulating volume Effective circulating volume Renal Sodium and Water Regulation (e.g., heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)):
      • Potassium Potassium An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol k, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39. 10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance. Hyperkalemia chloride Chloride Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion. Electrolytes
      • K+-sparing diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication (e.g., amiloride Amiloride A pyrazine compound inhibiting sodium reabsorption through sodium channels in renal epithelial cells. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with diuretics to spare potassium loss. Liddle Syndrome)
      • Avoid isotonic Isotonic Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. Renal Sodium and Water Regulation saline as it will worsen symptoms without improving alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis.
  • Correct electrolyte abnormalities, especially:
    • K+
    • Cl
    • Na+ (through fluid management)
  • Consider dialysis Dialysis Renal replacement therapy refers to dialysis and/or kidney transplantation. Dialysis is a procedure by which toxins and excess water are removed from the circulation. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) are the two types of dialysis, and their primary difference is the location of the filtration process (external to the body in hemodialysis versus inside the body for PD). Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with CKD CKD Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney impairment that lasts for ≥ 3 months, implying that it is irreversible. Hypertension and diabetes are the most common causes; however, there are a multitude of other etiologies. In the early to moderate stages, CKD is usually asymptomatic and is primarily diagnosed by laboratory abnormalities. Chronic Kidney Disease.

Clinical Relevance

  • Primary hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism is defined as the increased secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Hyperaldosteronism may be primary (resulting from autonomous secretion), or secondary (resulting from physiological secretion due to stimulation of the RAAS). Classically, hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyperaldosteronism: an increased secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies of aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia from the zona glomerulosa Zona Glomerulosa The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert pregnenolone to aldosterone. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by cytochrome p-450 cyp11b2. Adrenal Glands: Anatomy of the adrenal cortex Adrenal Cortex The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from mesoderm and comprised of three zones (outer zona glomerulosa, middle zona fasciculata, and inner zona reticularis) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as aldosterone; hydrocortisone; dehydroepiandrosterone; and androstenedione. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary adrenocorticotropin. Adrenal Glands: Anatomy. Classically, hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism is defined as the increased secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Hyperaldosteronism may be primary (resulting from autonomous secretion), or secondary (resulting from physiological secretion due to stimulation of the RAAS). Classically, hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, hypokalemia Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is defined as plasma potassium (K+) concentration < 3.5 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain plasma concentration between 3.5-5.2 mEq/L despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hypokalemia can be due to renal losses, GI losses, transcellular shifts, or poor dietary intake. Hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension who are either treatment resistant and/or associated with hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum potassium (K+) concentration >5.2 mEq/L. Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the serum K+ concentration between 3.5 and 5.2 mEq/L, despite marked variation in dietary intake. Hyperkalemia can be due to a variety of causes, which include transcellular shifts, tissue breakdown, inadequate renal excretion, and drugs. Hyperkalemia should be screened for hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism is defined as the increased secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Hyperaldosteronism may be primary (resulting from autonomous secretion), or secondary (resulting from physiological secretion due to stimulation of the RAAS). Classically, hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyperaldosteronism by assessing plasma Plasma The residual portion of blood that is left after removal of blood cells by centrifugation without prior blood coagulation. Transfusion Products aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia concentration and plasma renin activity Plasma renin activity Renal Artery Stenosis. The diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism is defined as the increased secretion of aldosterone from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Hyperaldosteronism may be primary (resulting from autonomous secretion), or secondary (resulting from physiological secretion due to stimulation of the RAAS). Classically, hyperaldosteronism presents with hypertension, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis. Hyperaldosteronism requires confirmatory tests and an abdominal CT scan. Management involves the use of aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia receptor Receptor Receptors are proteins located either on the surface of or within a cell that can bind to signaling molecules known as ligands (e.g., hormones) and cause some type of response within the cell. Receptors antagonists and surgical excision of any aldosterone Aldosterone A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hyperkalemia-secreting tumors.
  • Cushing’s syndrome: a disorder characterized by features resulting from chronic exposure Exposure ABCDE Assessment to excess glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids Glucocorticoids are a class within the corticosteroid family. Glucocorticoids are chemically and functionally similar to endogenous cortisol. There are a wide array of indications, which primarily benefit from the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of this class of drugs. Glucocorticoids. The condition may be exogenous due to chronic glucocorticoid intake, or endogenous due to the increased adrenal secretion Secretion Coagulation Studies of cortisol Cortisol Glucocorticoids or increased production of adrenocorticotropic hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex and its production of corticosteroids. Acth is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the n-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotropic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, acth can yield alpha-msh and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (clip). Adrenal Hormones (ACTH) from the pituitary gland Pituitary gland The pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis, is considered the “master endocrine gland” because it releases hormones that regulate the activity of multiple major endocrine organs in the body. The gland sits on the sella turcica, just below the hypothalamus, which is the primary regulator of the pituitary gland. Pituitary Gland: Anatomy or ectopic sources. Typical clinical features include central obesity Central Obesity Cushing Syndrome, thin and bruisable skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions, abdominal striae, secondary hypertension Secondary hypertension Hypertension, hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Abnormally high blood glucose level. Diabetes Mellitus, and proximal muscle weakness Proximal Muscle Weakness Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome. The initial diagnostic approach is to establish hypercortisolism Hypercortisolism Cushing’s syndrome or hypercortisolism is a disorder characterized by features resulting from chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Cushing’s syndrome may be exogenous, due to chronic glucocorticoid intake, or endogenous, due to increased adrenal secretion of cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production from the pituitary gland or ectopic sources. Cushing Syndrome via urinary and salivary cortisol Cortisol Glucocorticoids tests along with a low-dose dexamethasone Dexamethasone An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid. Antiemetics suppression Suppression Defense Mechanisms test. 
  • Calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes-alkali syndrome: previously known as milk-alkali syndrome. Calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes-alkali syndrome leads to hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia (serum calcium > 10.5 mg/dL) can result from various conditions, the majority of which are due to hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Other causes include disorders leading to vitamin D elevation, granulomatous diseases, and the use of certain pharmacological agents. Symptoms vary depending on calcium levels and the onset of hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis, and AKI AKI Acute kidney injury refers to sudden and often reversible loss of renal function, which develops over days or weeks. Azotemia refers to elevated levels of nitrogen-containing substances in the blood that accompany AKI, which include BUN and creatinine. Acute Kidney Injury due to the excessive ingestion of a source of calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes and alkali, which is usually calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate Carbonic acid calcium salt. An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement. Hypocalcemia. Treatment involves stopping the supplements and giving loop diuretics Diuretics Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function. Heart Failure and Angina Medication to alleviate hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia (serum calcium > 10.5 mg/dL) can result from various conditions, the majority of which are due to hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Other causes include disorders leading to vitamin D elevation, granulomatous diseases, and the use of certain pharmacological agents. Symptoms vary depending on calcium levels and the onset of hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia.
  • Congestive heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR): the inability of the heart to supply the body with normal cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) output to meet metabolic needs. In congestive heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR), the cardiac Cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) output is reduced, which decreases blood flow Blood flow Blood flow refers to the movement of a certain volume of blood through the vasculature over a given unit of time (e.g., mL per minute). Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure to the kidneys Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located retroperitoneally against the posterior wall of the abdomen on either side of the spine. As part of the urinary tract, the kidneys are responsible for blood filtration and excretion of water-soluble waste in the urine. Kidneys: Anatomy. In several patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship, congestive heart failure Heart Failure A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (ventricular dysfunction), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as myocardial infarction. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR) can lead to metabolic alkalosis Alkalosis A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids. Respiratory Alkalosis. Echocardiography Echocardiography Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic. Tricuspid Valve Atresia (TVA) can confirm the diagnosis and provide information about the EF EF Cardiac Cycle. Treatment is directed at the removal of excess fluid and decreasing oxygen demand of the heart. Prognosis Prognosis A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual’s condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations. Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas depends on the underlying cause, compliance Compliance Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (lung compliance) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure. Veins: Histology with medical therapy, and the presence of comorbidities Comorbidities The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus.

References

  1. Emmett, M., Szerlip, H. (2019). Clinical manifestations and evaluation of metabolic alkalosis. UpToDate. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-evaluation-of-metabolic-alkalosis 
  2. Emmett, M., Szerlip, H. (2019). Causes of metabolic alkalosis. UpToDate. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/causes-of-metabolic-alkalosis
  3. Emmett, M., Szerlip, H. (2020). Pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis. UpToDate. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-metabolic-alkalosis
  4. Mehta, A., Emmett, M. (2020). Treatment of metabolic alkalosis. UpToDate. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-metabolic-alkalosis
  5. Young, W.F. (2019). Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndromes (including chronic licorice ingestion). UpToDate. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/apparent-mineralocorticoid-excess-syndromes-including-chronic-licorice-ingestion
  6. Yu, A.S., Stubbs, J.R. (2019). The milk-alkali syndrome. UpToDate. Retrieved April 2, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/the-milk-alkali-syndrome
  7. Thomas, C.P. (2020). Metabolic alkalosis. Medscape. Retrieved Apr 11, 2021, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/243160-overview

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