Hallucinogen use disorder is defined by the pathologic consumption of hallucinogenic substances that cause perceptual distortions (visual or auditory). Examples include psilocybin ( mushrooms Mushrooms Mycology), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and phencyclidine ( PCP PCP Pneumocystis jiroveci is a yeast-like fungus causing pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients. Pneumocystis pneumonia is spread through airborne transmission and classically affects patients with AIDS, functioning as an AIDS-defining illness. Patients may present with insidious onset of fever, chills, dry cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Pneumocystis jirovecii/Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)). These drugs are used for their psychedelic effects, i.e., a temporarily altered state of consciousness. Most hallucinogens produce nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics, vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia, and mild sympathomimetic Sympathomimetic Sympathomimetic drugs, also known as adrenergic agonists, mimic the action of the stimulators (Î±, β, or dopamine receptors) of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system. Sympathomimetic drugs are classified based on the type of receptors the drugs act on (some agents act on several receptors but 1 is predominate). Sympathomimetic Drugs effects such as tachycardia Tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a heart rate above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia. Sepsis in Children, hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, mydriasis Mydriasis Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in adie syndrome. Glaucoma, hyperthermia, and diaphoresis. Although hallucinogens may cause hyperthermia in severe cases, they don’t result in dependence or withdrawal symptoms.
Last updated: Nov 14, 2022
Hallucinogen use disorder describes a chronic (> 12 months), problematic pattern of hallucinogen use that causes significant distress. Hallucinogens are natural or synthetic intoxicants that alter multiple sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology perceptions.
Acute intoxication appears with agitation Agitation A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions. St. Louis Encephalitis Virus or aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder as well as psychotic symptoms Psychotic symptoms Brief Psychotic Disorder such as perceptual disturbances or changes in mood.
Tolerance Tolerance Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics:
Tolerance Tolerance Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics is the need to increase the dose of the substance to achieve the desired effect (diminished effect if using the same amount of the substance).
Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency:
Hallucinogen use is linked with lower morbidity Morbidity The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population. Measures of Health Status and mortality Mortality All deaths reported in a given population. Measures of Health Status compared with other substances.
||MDMA MDMA An n-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as mdma or ecstasy. Stimulants (” ecstasy Ecstasy An n-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as mdma or ecstasy. Stimulants”)|
Effects of acute intoxication may be referred to as a “trip.” “Bad trip” symptoms can include anxiety Anxiety Feelings or emotions of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with anxiety disorders. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, panic, and psychotic symptoms Psychotic symptoms Brief Psychotic Disorder (paranoia, hallucinations Hallucinations Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with mental disorders. Schizophrenia).
Four different phases can be distinguished:
A withdrawal syndrome does not usually occur.
The management of hallucinogen intoxication depends on the symptoms with which an individual presents.
There is no FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for hallucinogen withdrawal as the symptoms are mild.
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