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Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone bodies are an important source of energy and their metabolism is a tightly regulated process. When glucose reserves in the body run low, more fatty acids are made available to the liver for oxidation, leading to the consequent production of energy-rich molecules, most notably acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can either enter the citric acid cycle in the liver or be used for the synthesis of ketone bodies. The ketone bodies can then travel via the blood throughout the body. Cells (especially in skeletal muscle and the brain) can then convert the ketone bodies back into acetyl-CoA, which can enter the citric acid cycle to produce ATP. Ketone bodies are a way for the body to use the energy stored in fat when glucose is unavailable or unable to be used.

Last updated: Sep 8, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Ketone Bodies and Their Function

  • 3 major types of ketones Ketones Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group =C=O bonded to two hydrocarbon groups. Basics of Carbohydrates are produced in the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy:
    • Acetoacetate
    • Acetone: a product Product A molecule created by the enzymatic reaction. Basics of Enzymes of the decarboxylation Decarboxylation The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound. Catabolism of Amino Acids of acetoacetate (either spontaneously or by the action of acetoacetate decarboxylase)
    • β-Hydroxybutyrate:
      • The most abundant ketone body
      • Derived from acetoacetate by D-β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
  • Other ketones Ketones Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group =C=O bonded to two hydrocarbon groups. Basics of Carbohydrates are synthesized from the metabolism of triglycerides Triglycerides Fatty Acids and Lipids (i.e., β-ketopentanoate, β-hydroxypentanoate).
  • Ketone bodies are produced during periods of when glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance is unable to be used by cells, which includes:
    • Low glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance availability:
      • Starvation
      • Diets very low in carbohydrates Carbohydrates A class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of cn(H2O)n. The largest class of organic compounds, including starch; glycogen; cellulose; polysaccharides; and simple monosaccharides. Basics of Carbohydrates
    • Insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin deficiency or resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing (e.g., diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus)
  • Released by the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy after glycogen is depleted
  • Ketones Ketones Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group =C=O bonded to two hydrocarbon groups. Basics of Carbohydrates have a characteristic fruity smell Smell The sense of smell, or olfaction, begins in a small area on the roof of the nasal cavity, which is covered in specialized mucosa. From there, the olfactory nerve transmits the sensory perception of smell via the olfactory pathway. This pathway is composed of the olfactory cells and bulb, the tractus and striae olfactoriae, and the primary olfactory cortex and amygdala. Olfaction: Anatomy.
  • Functions:
    • Source of energy for the heart, brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification, and muscle during periods of low glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance availability:
      • Converted into acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle in target cells, which is then used to generate ATP in the citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle
      • Acetoacetate produces 2 GTP and 22 ATP
    • Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification is dependent on ketone bodies as its sole energy resource during periods of fasting because the blood-brain barrier Blood-brain barrier Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined endothelial cells with tight junctions that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the brain tissue. Systemic and Special Circulations is not permeable to fatty acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance.

Ketogenesis

Ketogenesis is the process of generating ketone bodies, which occurs in the mitochondria Mitochondria Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs; amino Acyl tRNA synthetases; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. The Cell: Organelles of hepatocytes Hepatocytes The main structural component of the liver. They are specialized epithelial cells that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules. Liver: Anatomy.

Regulation

  • Insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin (primary regulation) inhibits ketogenesis, because insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin:
    • Inhibits lipolysis Lipolysis The metabolic process of breaking down lipids to release free fatty acids, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the digestive tract, circulating lipids in the blood, and stored lipids in the adipose tissue or the liver. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as lipase and lipoprotein lipase from various tissues. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease → ↓ available FFA FFA Macular Degeneration
    • Inhibits FFA FFA Macular Degeneration oxidation
    • Stimulates lipogenesis Lipogenesis De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of fatty acids and subsequent triglycerides in the liver and the adipose tissue. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 
    • Stimulates HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA reductase Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield mevalonic acid. Cholesterol Metabolism
  • Additional regulators:
    • Glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions (stimulatory)
    • Cortisol Cortisol Glucocorticoids
    • Thyroid hormones Thyroid hormones The 2 primary thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones are synthesized and secreted by the thyroid, and they are responsible for stimulating metabolism in most cells of the body. Their secretion is regulated primarily by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced by the pituitary gland. Thyroid Hormones
    • Catecholamines Catecholamines A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine. Adrenal Hormones
    • Ethanol Ethanol A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Ethanol Metabolism
  • During starvation, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is used in ketogenesis because intermediates in the citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle are not readily available.

Synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

  • Thiolase Thiolase Fatty Acid Metabolism catalyzes the combination of 2 acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle molecules → acetoacetyl-CoA
  • HMG-CoA synthase converts acetoacetyl-CoA → β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA)
    • HMG-CoA is a branch point: can be converted into ketone bodies or cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism
    • Rate-determining enzyme for both ketone body and cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • HMG-CoA lyase breaks HMG-CoA into acetoacetate (1st ketone body) + acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle
  • Acetoacetate can form other ketone bodies:
    • D-β-hydroxybutyrate (β-hydroxybutyric acid) via the action of β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
    • Acetone via nonenzymatic decarboxylation Decarboxylation The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound. Catabolism of Amino Acids
Steps required for the synthesis of ketone bodies

Steps required for the synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of ketone bodies

Image by Lecturio.

Transport and Utilization

  • Ketone bodies are delivered to cells as an energy source during fasting states.
  • Sources of energy during fasting:
    • Glycogenolysis Glycogenolysis The release of glucose from glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase before entering glycolysis. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by glucagon or epinephrine via the activation of phosphorylase kinase. Glycogen Metabolism (1st): glycogen is broken down into glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance → broken down into acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle → enters the citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle
    • Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis is the process of making glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. This metabolic pathway is more than just a reversal of glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis provides the body with glucose not obtained from food, such as during a fasting period. The production of glucose is critical for organs and cells that cannot use fat for fuel. Gluconeogenesis: Glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance is synthesized from noncarbohydrate sources.
    • Lipolysis Lipolysis The metabolic process of breaking down lipids to release free fatty acids, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the digestive tract, circulating lipids in the blood, and stored lipids in the adipose tissue or the liver. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as lipase and lipoprotein lipase from various tissues. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: TAGs are broken down into FFAs → FFAs undergo β-oxidation to produce acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle, which enters the citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle
    • Ketogenesis: Increases significantly when additional intermediates required for the citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle are depleted, and when acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle is increased due to FFA FFA Macular Degeneration oxidation.
  • Acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate are water-soluble ketone bodies that can travel freely through blood:
  • Acetone is not a productive molecule and is expelled through the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy.
  • Other ketone bodies may be excreted in the urine before they reach target tissues to become energetically useful.
  • Acetoacetyl-CoA is hydrolyzed by thiolase Thiolase Fatty Acid Metabolism into 2 acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle molecules, which are taken up in the citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle.
Citric acid cycle

Citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle:
Free fatty acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance ( FFA FFA Macular Degeneration) are brought to the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy (and some extrahepatic sites) where they are activated into fatty acyl-CoA chains and then broken down via β-oxidation into individual molecules of acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle. When glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance is in limited supply, acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle is converted into ketone bodies. Acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate travel via the blood to the extrahepatic tissues where they are needed (e.g., muscle, brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification) and converted back into acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle, which then enters the citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle, is a cyclic set of reactions that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. The TCA cycle is the continuation of any metabolic pathway that produces pyruvate, which is converted into its main substrate, acetyl-CoA. Citric Acid Cycle to generate ATP energy. Some acetoacetate undergoes nonenzymatic conversion into the ketone body acetone, which enters the blood and is exhaled by the lungs Lungs Lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. Lungs are paired viscera located in the thoracic cavity and are composed of spongy tissue. The primary function of the lungs is to oxygenate blood and eliminate CO2. Lungs: Anatomy. Additional ketone bodies are excreted by the urine prior to reaching their target extrahepatic tissue.
FFA FFA Macular Degeneration: free fatty acid
Solid line: primary pathway
Dotted line: Minor pathways

Image by Lecturio.

Clinical Relevance

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of type 1 diabetes mellitus with severe insulin deficiency and extreme hyperglycemia. It is characterized by ketosis; dehydration; and depressed consciousness leading to coma. Metabolic Acidosis ( DKA DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are serious, acute complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis due to an absolute insulin deficiency. Hyperglycemic Crises): the absence of (or significant resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing to) insulin Insulin Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a role in metabolic functions such as glucose uptake, glycolysis, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis. Exogenous insulin may be needed for individuals with diabetes mellitus, in whom there is a deficiency in endogenous insulin or increased insulin resistance. Insulin can increase the β-oxidation of fatty acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance due to the influence of glucagon Glucagon A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal glucagon-like peptides. Glucagon is secreted by pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. Gastrointestinal Secretions. This phenomenon drastically increases the production of ketone bodies, producing a state of ketosis Ketosis A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of ketone bodies in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of diabetes complication, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., maple syrup urine disease). Hyperglycemic Crises. Diabetic ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of type 1 diabetes mellitus with severe insulin deficiency and extreme hyperglycemia. It is characterized by ketosis; dehydration; and depressed consciousness leading to coma. Metabolic Acidosis occurs when there is a prolonged accumulation of ketoacids and other endogenously produced acids Acids Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. Acid-Base Balance in the bloodstream, further leading to anion-gap metabolic acidosis Metabolic acidosis The renal system is responsible for eliminating the daily load of non-volatile acids, which is approximately 70 millimoles per day. Metabolic acidosis occurs when there is an increase in the levels of new non-volatile acids (e.g., lactic acid), renal loss of HCO3-, or ingestion of toxic alcohols. Metabolic Acidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of type 1 diabetes mellitus with severe insulin deficiency and extreme hyperglycemia. It is characterized by ketosis; dehydration; and depressed consciousness leading to coma. Metabolic Acidosis may lead to confusion, Kussmaul respirations Kussmaul respirations Rapid, deep respirations. Hyperglycemic Crises, and cerebral edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema
  • Ketosis Ketosis A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of ketone bodies in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of diabetes complication, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., maple syrup urine disease). Hyperglycemic Crises: a condition seen in cases of prolonged fasting, starvation, and malnutrition Malnutrition Malnutrition is a clinical state caused by an imbalance or deficiency of calories and/or micronutrients and macronutrients. The 2 main manifestations of acute severe malnutrition are marasmus (total caloric insufficiency) and kwashiorkor (protein malnutrition with characteristic edema). Malnutrition in children in resource-limited countries (extremely low-carbohydrate diets), wherein glucose Glucose A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. Lactose Intolerance reserves are used up and ketogenesis increases dramatically. 
  • HMG-CoA and statin drugs: HMG-CoA is an intermediate in both ketone body and cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The enzyme HMG-CoA synthase forms HMG-CoA from acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent. Citric Acid Cycle and acetoacetyl-CoA. Statins Statins Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase in the liver. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition results in lowered intrahepatocytic cholesterol formation, resulting in up-regulation of LDL receptors and, ultimately, lowering levels of serum LDL and triglycerides. Statins are a group of drugs that block the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA reductase Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield mevalonic acid. Cholesterol Metabolism, which catalyzes cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism synthesis Synthesis Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the liver Liver The liver is the largest gland in the human body. The liver is found in the superior right quadrant of the abdomen and weighs approximately 1.5 kilograms. Its main functions are detoxification, metabolism, nutrient storage (e.g., iron and vitamins), synthesis of coagulation factors, formation of bile, filtration, and storage of blood. Liver: Anatomy. Statins Statins Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase in the liver. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition results in lowered intrahepatocytic cholesterol formation, resulting in up-regulation of LDL receptors and, ultimately, lowering levels of serum LDL and triglycerides. Statins are most commonly used in the management of cardiovascular diseases.

References

  1. Botham, K.M., Mayes, P.A. (2018). Oxidation of fatty acids: Ketogenesis. In V.W. Rodwell, D.A. Bender, K.M. Botham, P.J. Kennelly, P.A. Weil (Eds.), Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry, 31e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?aid=1160192486
  2. Elliott, B., Mina, M., Ferrier, C. (2016). Complete and voluntary starvation of 50 days. Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports, 9, 67–70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982520/
  3. Paoli, A., Bosco, G., Camporesi, E.M., Mangar, D. (2015). Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: A complex relationship. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 27. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00027
  4. Dhillon K.K., Gupta S. Biochemistry, Ketogenesis. [Updated 2022 Feb 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493179/

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