Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction and the subsequent stasis of tears. The condition can have an acute or chronic onset. Acute dacryocystitis presents within hours or days with redness, swelling, tenderness, and excessive tearing. The chronic type has a gradual course, often manifesting with epiphora. Dacryocystitis can be congenital or acquired. The most common etiology of congenital dacryocystitis is nasolacrimal duct obstruction, which affects 6% of newborns. Acquired cases typically occur in adults and are due to trauma, systemic diseases, or tumors. Diagnosis is made clinically. In some cases, laboratory tests and imaging help determine abnormal structures and underlying disease. Initial treatment includes conservative measures such as Crigler massage, warm compresses, and antibiotics, if indicated. If these fail, surgical options are available.
Last updated: Apr 28, 2023
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction and the subsequent stasis of tears. The condition can have an acute or chronic onset. Acute dacryocystitis presents within hours or days with redness, swelling, tenderness, and excessive tearing. Dacryocystitis is an inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation of the lacrimal sac Lacrimal Sac Dacryocystitis due to nasolacrimal duct Nasolacrimal Duct Nasolacrimal duct. Dacryocystitis (NLD) obstruction and the subsequent stasis of tears.
Testing is based on signs and symptoms.
Nasal endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
|Medication||Typical adult dose||Typical pediatric dose|
|Amoxicillin Amoxicillin A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. Penicillins–clavulanate||875 mg every 12 hours||20–40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses|
|Cephalexin||500 mg every 6 hours||25–50 mg/kg/day divided every 6–12 hours|
|Clindamycin Clindamycin An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of lincomycin. Lincosamides||300 mg every 6–8 hours||30–40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses|
|Cefazolin Cefazolin A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine. Cephalosporins||1 mg IV every 8 hours||N/A|
|Cefuroxime||N/A||50‒100 mg/kg/day IV in 3 divided doses|
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