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Carotid Artery Stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a chronic atherosclerotic disease resulting in narrowing of the common and internal carotid arteries Carotid Arteries Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery. Carotid Arterial System: Anatomy. Common risk factors include family history Family History Adult Health Maintenance, advanced age, hyperlipidemia, smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases, and diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus mellitus. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship may present with or without symptoms of decreased cerebral perfusion Cerebral Perfusion Syncope. Carotid artery stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is commonly diagnosed via ultrasound. Management includes lifestyle modifications to control progression of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis. Treatment is with statins Statins Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase in the liver. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition results in lowered intrahepatocytic cholesterol formation, resulting in up-regulation of LDL receptors and, ultimately, lowering levels of serum LDL and triglycerides. Statins, anti-hypertensive and antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents Antiplatelet agents are medications that inhibit platelet aggregation, a critical step in the formation of the initial platelet plug. Abnormal, or inappropriate, platelet aggregation is a key step in the pathophysiology of arterial ischemic events. The primary categories of antiplatelet agents include aspirin, ADP inhibitors, phosphodiesterase/adenosine uptake inhibitors, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Antiplatelet Drugs, and, in some cases, surgical revascularization Revascularization Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease). The most serious complication of carotid artery stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is stroke.

Last updated: 29 Apr, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Carotid artery stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a narrowing of the common and internal carotid arteries Carotid Arteries Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery. Carotid Arterial System: Anatomy secondary to atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis.

Epidemiology

  • Affects more men than women until the age of 75
  • Risk increases with age:
    • 0.5% prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency in the 6th decade
    • 10% prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship > 80 years of age
  • Major cause of disability Disability Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for social security and workman’s compensation benefits. ABCDE Assessment and fatal stroke

Etiology

  • Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis
  • Modifiable risk factors:
    • Hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension
    • Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia A condition with abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population. Lipid Disorders
    • Smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases
    • Alcohol use
    • Sedentary lifestyle
    • Diabetes Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dysfunction of the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin. Type 1 DM is diagnosed mostly in children and young adults as the result of autoimmune destruction of β cells in the pancreas and the resulting lack of insulin. Type 2 DM has a significant association with obesity and is characterized by insulin resistance. Diabetes Mellitus mellitus
    • Obesity Obesity Obesity is a condition associated with excess body weight, specifically with the deposition of excessive adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Major influences come from the western diet and sedentary lifestyles, but the exact mechanisms likely include a mixture of genetic and environmental factors. Obesity
  • Non-modifiable risk factors:

Pathophysiology

Carotid stenosis Carotid stenosis Narrowing or stricture of any part of the carotid arteries, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce thrombus formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a transient ischemic attack; cerebrovascular accident; or temporary blindness (amaurosis fugax). Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) can cause symptoms from a state of low flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure or embolization Embolization A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and intracranial arteriovenous malformations, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

Low flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure results from progressive narrowing of the carotid artery:

  • Development of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis (local thickening of the arterial wall due to plaque Plaque Primary Skin Lesions deposition)
  • Atherosclerotic plaques consist of a lipid core covered with a fibrous Fibrous Fibrocystic Change cap.
  • Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis commonly develops at the site of endothelial injury secondary to increased blood turbulence.
  • Plaques, therefore, typically develop at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery Common carotid artery The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external and internal carotid arteries. Carotid Arterial System: Anatomy.
  • Narrowing of the lumen can produce symptoms, especially if there is inadequate collateral circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment to the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification.

Embolization Embolization A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and intracranial arteriovenous malformations, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal Bleeding:

  • Calcified plaques are less likely to be inflamed and are less prone to rupture.
  • Plaques are more susceptible to rupture when the fibrous Fibrous Fibrocystic Change cap becomes thin with the remodeling of the extracellular matrix Extracellular matrix A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars by matrix metalloproteinases Matrix metalloproteinases A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components. Hypertrophic and Keloid Scars.
  • Rupture of the plaque Plaque Primary Skin Lesions can lead to thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus and embolization Embolization A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and intracranial arteriovenous malformations, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal Bleeding, resulting in a stroke.
  • Important features of rupture-prone carotid plaques:
    • Increased numbers of inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages Macrophages The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood monocytes. Main types are peritoneal macrophages; alveolar macrophages; histiocytes; kupffer cells of the liver; and osteoclasts. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to epithelioid cells or may fuse to form foreign body giant cells or langhans giant cells. Innate Immunity: Phagocytes and Antigen Presentation)
    • Fissures/ ulceration Ulceration Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers
    • Large lipid core
    • Thin fibrous Fibrous Fibrocystic Change cap
    • Endothelial denudation
    • Platelet aggregation Aggregation The attachment of platelets to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., thrombin; collagen) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a thrombus. Coagulation Studies
Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

Image: “Carotid Artery Disease” by Blausen.com staff (2014). License: CC BY 3.0

Clinical Presentation

  • Asymptomatic
  • Transient ischemic attack Transient ischemic attack Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia without infarction that resolves completely when blood supply is restored. Transient ischemic attack is a neurologic emergency that warrants urgent medical attention. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) ( TIA TIA Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia without infarction that resolves completely when blood supply is restored. Transient ischemic attack is a neurologic emergency that warrants urgent medical attention. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)):
    • Results from transient cerebral ischemia Ischemia A hypoperfusion of the blood through an organ or tissue caused by a pathologic constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels, or an absence of blood circulation. Ischemic Cell Damage without acute infarction
    • Produces transient neurological symptoms:
      • Embolic: usually lasts a few hours
      • Low flow Flow Blood flows through the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins in a closed, continuous circuit. Flow is the movement of volume per unit of time. Flow is affected by the pressure gradient and the resistance fluid encounters between 2 points. Vascular resistance is the opposition to flow, which is caused primarily by blood friction against vessel walls. Vascular Resistance, Flow, and Mean Arterial Pressure: usually lasts a few minutes
  • Ischemic stroke Ischemic Stroke An ischemic stroke (also known as cerebrovascular accident) is an acute neurologic injury that occurs as a result of brain ischemia; this condition may be due to cerebral blood vessel occlusion by thrombosis or embolism, or rarely due to systemic hypoperfusion. Ischemic Stroke:
    • Brain ischemia Brain Ischemia Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia. Prolonged ischemia is associated with brain infarction. Ischemic Stroke to thrombosis Thrombosis Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel. Epidemic Typhus, embolism, or hypoperfusion
    • Can result in acute brain-tissue infarction
    • Persistent neurological symptoms may result in permanent damage
  • Symptoms include:
    • Amaurosis fugax (painless monocular vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss)
    • Hand Hand The hand constitutes the distal part of the upper limb and provides the fine, precise movements needed in activities of daily living. It consists of 5 metacarpal bones and 14 phalanges, as well as numerous muscles innervated by the median and ulnar nerves. Hand: Anatomy/ arm Arm The arm, or “upper arm” in common usage, is the region of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the elbow joint and connects inferiorly to the forearm through the cubital fossa. It is divided into 2 fascial compartments (anterior and posterior). Arm: Anatomy weakness, numbness, or heaviness
    • Contralateral hemiplegia
    • Ipsilateral facial weakness
    • Aphasia Aphasia A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia. Ischemic Stroke (dominant hemisphere)
    • Anosognosia Anosognosia Alzheimer Disease ( neglect Neglect Child Abuse; non-dominant hemisphere)

Diagnosis

History

  • Previous documented strokes or TIAs
  • Transient weakness, numbness, speech impairment, or vision Vision Ophthalmic Exam loss
  • History of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia A condition with abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population. Lipid Disorders/ hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension

Physical exam

Imaging

Management

Lifestyle modifications

  • Stop smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases.
  • Weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery
  • Limit Limit A value (e.g., pressure or time) that should not be exceeded and which is specified by the operator to protect the lung Invasive Mechanical Ventilation alcohol intake.
  • Regular Regular Insulin exercise
  • DASH diet (a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and low in fats Fats The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (dietary fats) as a source of energy. Energy Homeostasis, dairy, and saturated/total fats Fats The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (dietary fats) as a source of energy. Energy Homeostasis)

Medications

  • Antiplatelet therapy (e.g., aspirin Aspirin The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), clopidogrel Clopidogrel A ticlopidine analog and platelet purinergic p2y receptor antagonist that inhibits adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet aggregation. It is used to prevent thromboembolism in patients with arterial occlusive diseases; myocardial infarction; stroke; or atrial fibrillation. Antiplatelet Drugs)
  • High-intensity statin treatment (promotes plaque Plaque Primary Skin Lesions stability)
  • Antihypertensives Antihypertensives The 1st-line medication classes for hypertension include thiazide-like diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and calcium channel blockers (CCBS). Contraindications, adverse effects, and drug-to-drug interactions are agent specific. Hypertension Drugs

Surgical revascularization Revascularization Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger’s Disease)

Carotid endarterectomy Endarterectomy Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called atherectomy. Intestinal Ischemia ( CEA CEA A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment. Serum Tumor Markers):

Carotid angioplasty Angioplasty Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (balloon angioplasty) to compress an atheroma. Except for endarterectomy, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive endovascular procedures. Cardiac Surgery and stenting:

  • Less invasive alternative to CEA CEA A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment. Serum Tumor Markers
  • Greater risk of periprocedural stroke than CEA CEA A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment. Serum Tumor Markers
  • Recommended for patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with:

Differential Diagnosis

  • Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: stenosis Stenosis Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) of vertebral and basilar arteries Arteries Arteries are tubular collections of cells that transport oxygenated blood and nutrients from the heart to the tissues of the body. The blood passes through the arteries in order of decreasing luminal diameter, starting in the largest artery (the aorta) and ending in the small arterioles. Arteries are classified into 3 types: large elastic arteries, medium muscular arteries, and small arteries and arterioles. Arteries: Histology secondary to atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a common form of arterial disease in which lipid deposition forms a plaque in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is an incurable disease, for which there are clearly defined risk factors that often can be reduced through a change in lifestyle and behavior of the patient. Atherosclerosis, which results in compromised circulation Circulation The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system. ABCDE Assessment to the posterior brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification. Symptoms include dizziness Dizziness An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness. Lateral Medullary Syndrome (Wallenberg Syndrome)/ vertigo Vertigo Vertigo is defined as the perceived sensation of rotational motion while remaining still. A very common complaint in primary care and the ER, vertigo is more frequently experienced by women and its prevalence increases with age. Vertigo is classified into peripheral or central based on its etiology. Vertigo, numbness, slurred speech Slurred Speech Cerebellar Disorders, weakness, confusion, and loss of coordination Coordination Cerebellar Disorders. Diagnosis is based on MRA MRA Imaging of the Heart and Great Vessels or CTA CTA A non-invasive method that uses a ct scanner for capturing images of blood vessels and tissues. A contrast material is injected, which helps produce detailed images that aid in diagnosing vascular diseases. Pulmonary Function Tests, and treatment is focused on the control of hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension and cholesterol Cholesterol The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. Cholesterol Metabolism, and lifestyle modifications.
  • Embolic strokes from other sources: Carotid atherosclerotic plaques are a very common source of emboli to cerebral vessels, but other sources include the heart and aortic arch Aortic arch Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy. Presenting symptoms are very similar to TIA TIA Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia without infarction that resolves completely when blood supply is restored. Transient ischemic attack is a neurologic emergency that warrants urgent medical attention. Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) and strokes originating from the carotids. Diagnosis is established based on imaging studies, and treatment includes management of acute stroke and the underlying disease.
  • Carotid artery dissection Carotid artery dissection The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation. Dissection of the Carotid and Vertebral Arteries: a tear in the intimal layer of the carotid wall that results in separation of the wall layers with blood getting in between the layers, resulting in occlusion of the vessel lumen.  Carotid artery dissection Carotid artery dissection The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation. Dissection of the Carotid and Vertebral Arteries is the most common cause of stroke in young adults and may occur spontaneously or secondary to neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess trauma. Diagnosis is established with imaging. Treatment is with anticoagulants Anticoagulants Anticoagulants are drugs that retard or interrupt the coagulation cascade. The primary classes of available anticoagulants include heparins, vitamin K-dependent antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. Anticoagulants and surgical interventions in some cases.

References

  1. Abbott, A. et al. (2015). Systematic review of guidelines for the management of asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke, 46(11), 3288–3301. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.115.003390
  2. Fairman, R. M. (2020). Management of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-asymptomatic-carotid-atherosclerotic-disease
  3. Fairman, R. M. (2020). Management of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/management-of-symptomatic-carotid-atherosclerotic-disease
  4. Furie, K. (2019). Evaluation of carotid artery stenosis. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-carotid-artery-stenosis
  5. Furie, K. (2020). Pathophysiology of symptoms from carotid atherosclerosis. Retrieved March 10, 2021, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathophysiology-of-symptoms-from-carotid-atherosclerosis
  6. Prasad, K. (2015). Pathophysiology and medical treatment of carotid artery stenosis. International Journal of Angiology, 24(03), 158–172. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1554911

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