Gestational diabetes is one of the most common diseases associated with pregnancy. Some of the risk factors are overweight and a prior record of diabetes within the family. You will learn everything from the definition to the diagnosis of and to therapy for gestational diabetes, here.
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Definition of Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is defined as the first manifestation of a disruption of the glucose tolerance levels, which occurs during a pregnancy. It is triggered by an increased insulin resistance, which is caused by the pregnancy. The transition from so-called normal glucose tolerance levels during a pregnancy and gestational diabetes are smooth; such thing as a threshold value does not exist.

Nomenclature: diabetes during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, GDM, diabetes type 4

Epidemiology of Gestational Diabetes

About 2 % of all pregnant women have gestational diabetes. The frequency differs between the various ethnic population groups: Asian and Latin American women are more likely to be affected by it than caucasian women.

At the moment of birth, the GDM-prevalence in Germany has relatively increased by 2,52 times between 2002 and 2010. (AWMF guidelines)

Etiology and Pathogenesis of Gestational Diabetes

The pathophysiologies of gestational diabetes and diabetes type 2 are identical, for the most part. During the pregnancy, the carbohydrate metabolism changes. From the second trimester on, there is a risk for a peripheral insulin resistance. There can also be transplacental transfers of glucose into the bloodstream of the fetus. Aside from the hormonal changes during the pregnancy, cytokine and adipokine may be released by the adipose tissue and the placenta.

Image: “Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1) on the cell membrane which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2). These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).” by User Meiquer. License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Important: glucose can easily pass the placental barrier through facilitated diffusion, insulin can not.

Risk factors for developing gestational diabetes

Certain risk factors facilitate the development of gestational diabetes.

  • Record of diabetes mellitus within the family
  • Age > 30 years
  • Overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2)
  • Previous pregnancies with an overweight fetus (>4.500 g)
  • Arterial hypertonia, dyslipidemia prior to conception
  • Polycystic Ovarian syndrome (PCO-syndrome)
  • Anamnesis of CHD, PAOD
  • Ingestion of medication against insulin (i.e. glucocorticoids)

Symptoms and Clinic of Gestational Diabetes

Case study

A case study about gestational diabetes could look like this.

A 36-year-old woman in the ninth week of pregnancy is carrying her second child. Her first pregnancy was unproblematic and the healthy child, which was born seven days after the due date, had a birth weight of 4280 g.

The values of the blood sugar tests in the second trimester were “marginal“. During that first pregnancy she gained a total weight of 18 kg and despite occasional sports and “more vegetables and fruit“, she was not able to lose the additional weight entirely. Her metabolism was not monitored during the pregnancy since she has moved in the meantime and has not found a family doctor yet.

With gestational diabetes, there is mostly not any of the initial discomforts due to the increased blood sugar levels, therefore it does not cause the typical clinical picture of diabetes type 1. Polydipsia, glucosuria, changes in the quantity of amniotic fluids and arterial hypertension may occur. However, the possible disruption of the development of the fetus and the increased maternal risk for secondary diseases, are deciding factors. Infantile malformations (Fetopathia diabetica) are more common.

Complications of Gestational Diabetes

Complications for the mother

  • measurement of the blood pressure of a pregnant woman

    Image: “Measurement of the blood pressure of a pregnant woman. ” by nih.gov – http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/november2009/images/preeclampsia_l.jpg. License: Public Domain

    Increased risk of urinary tract infections

  • Development of a hypertensive disease with preeclampsia
  • Excessive weight gain during the pregnancy
  • Deterioration of an existing retinopathy
  • Derailment of the metabolism (hyperglycemia)

Complications for the fetus

The organ that is most commonly affected by fetopathica diabetia is the heart. Growth restriction and disturbances oft the blood circulation in the placenta are also common. The resulting undersupply can lead to an intrauterine death.

  • Image: “Diabetes and High Blood Sugar.” by BruceBlaus. License: CC BY 3.0

    Hyperglycemia → polyuria (polyhydramnios), excessive insulin production and macrosomia of the child → increased size and weight of the fetus can cause problems at birth. (example: shoulder dystocia)

  • Pulmonary malfunctions through premature lungs
  • Malfunctions of the liver (hyperbilirubinemia)
  • Fetal beta cells of the pancreas adapt to the mother’s high glucose levels and react with hyperplasia and more secretion of insulin →this state suspends for a short amount of time even after the placenta has been detached. It is the cause of hypoglycemia for a newborn child
  • Caudal regression syndrome (rare): malformation oft the lower body half
  • Fetal programming: increased risk of developing adiposis, diabetes type 2

Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes

To diagnose gestational diabetes, an oral glucose tolerance test will be performed (oGTT), first a screening, then as a 75 g-oGTT.

  1. Screening: pour 50 g of glucose into 200 ml of water, not dependent on the time of day or sobriety, measure the glucose level of the blood in venous plasma.
  2. 75 g-oGTT: blood glucose level according to the screening > 135 mg/dl. 75 g of glucose in 300 ml of water within 3-5 minutes. Diagnostical threshold values in venous plasma are as follows.
Time Threshold values in venous plasma
Fasting blood sugar 95 mg/dl
after 1 hour 180 mg/dl
after 2 hours 155 mg/dl
after 3 hours 140 mg/dl

Screening for gestational diabetes

All pregnant women should be screened for gestational diabetes between 24—28 weeks gestational age. Women that are at high-risk, should be screened in the first trimester and again at 24—28 weeks if negative in the first trimester.

High-yield!

Previous history of gestational diabetes

Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2)

Advanced maternal age ( > 35 years old)

Ethnicities: African-American, Hispanic

History of an infant with macrosomia

If a patient screens positive, a 3 h GTT is performed to diagnose gestational diabetes.

3 h GTT involves:

  • A fasting blood sugar
  • A 100 g glucose drink
  • A 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h blood draw

Therapy of Gestational Diabetes

Initially, blood sugars are managed by diet modification. If not controlled by diet, will need to manage with oral hypoglycemic or insulin.

Important! All women diagnosed with gestational diabetes should be screened for overt diabetes in the postpartum period.

75 g OGTT, 2 h test at 6—12 weeks postpartum

Women with gestational diabetes have 15—50 % lifetime risk of developing diabetes.

Blood glucose level target values

sober < 90 mg/dl
1h postprandial < 140 mg/dl
2h postprandial < 120 mg/dl

For the first two weeks, the target values will be aspired to be achieved by diet (switch to carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed, renunciation of industrial sugars, products made of superfine flour, etc). In case this approach fails, medicinal therapy with human insulin is possible.

Important: Therapy with oral diabetics is contraindicated!

Frequent examinations oft the metabolism (i.a. daily blood sugar profiles) and sonographic examinations should be performed in order to monitor the normal development of the fetus.

Development of Gestational Diabetes

There is an approximately 50 % risk for the mother, to develop gestational diabetes again in case of another pregnancy. Additionally, the risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 2 is increased as well.

If the blood glucose levels are well adjusted, a premature induction of labor or c-section is unlikely.

Review Questions

The correct answers can be found below the references.

1. Which is no possible manifestation of gestational diabetes oft the fetus?

  1. Macrosomia
  2. Hyperbilirubinemia
  3. Pulmonary malfunctions
  4. Polyhydramnios
  5. Caudal regression syndrome

2. Medicinal therapy of gestational diabetes is carried out with

  1. Metformin
  2. Insulin analogues
  3. Human insulin
  4. Glucagon
  5. Metoprolol

3. During therapy for gestational diabetes, what is the blood sugar target value in a state of sobriety?

  1. 70 mg/dl
  2. 100 mg/dl
  3. 80 mg/dl
  4. 90 mg/dl
  5. 110 mg/dl
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