Table of Contents
- Definition of Pericarditis
- Epidemiology of Acute Pericarditis
- Etiology of Acute Pericarditis
- Pathology and Pathophysiology of Acute Pericarditis
- Symptoms of Acute Pericarditis
- Diagnosis of Acute Pericarditis
- Differential Diagnoses of Acute Pericarditis
- Therapy of Acute Pericarditis
- Progression and Prognosis of Acute Pericarditis
- Review Questions
Definition of Pericarditis
Pericarditis is the condition of an inflamed pericardium, the visceral sac that covers the heart. Pericarditis has many etiologies including infection, autoimmune disease, uremia, radiation, surgery, and myocardial infarction.
The pericardium has two parts and three layers. The fibrous pericardium is the outer layer and is composed of connective tissue. The serous pericardium is composed of two layers: the visceral pericardium attached to the outermost layer of the heart, the epicardium, and the parietal pericardium which lines the inside of the pericardial sac. The parietal pericardium is fused to the fibrous pericardium. The pericardial cavity between the visceral and the pericardial layers is filled with serous fluid.
Epidemiology of Acute Pericarditis
Spread of acute pericarditis
Acute pericarditis is diagnosed in about 1 in 1000 hospital admissions. It is more common in adults compared to children. Uremic pericarditis is seen in patients with chronic renal failure. Purulent pericarditis (pericarditis with pus in the pericardial space, as the result of bacterial infection) has become rare in the developed world with the regular use of antibiotics but is still common in the developing world.
Etiology of Acute Pericarditis
Causes of acute pericarditis
There are many causes of acute pericardial inflammation:
|Open heart surgery and trauma||–|
*the most common causes of acute pericarditis
Pathology and Pathophysiology of Acute Pericarditis
The pericardium has four functions: it restricts the heart and prevents excess dilation, it produces a chamber at a negative pressure that aids in the atrial filling, it provides a frictionless environment, and it isolates the heart from the rest of the body.
An inflamed pericardium shows a polymorphonuclear infiltrate on microscopy and vascularization. Inflammatory signaling may stimulate the release of fluid that could result in effusion or fibrinous reactants that could result in a constrictive complication. Tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or fungal infections will show a granulomatous reaction with multinucleated giant cells and epithelioid cells on microscopy. The accumulation of urea, a metabolic toxin, in the pericardial space results in inflammation of the parietal and visceral layers.
Symptoms of Acute Pericarditis
Signs of acute pericarditis
Acute pericarditis is characterized by the following signs and symptoms:
- Persistent substernal chest pain that radiates to the trapezius or to the neck that is improved by leaning forward and made worse by lying supine, coughing, inhaling.
- Symptoms of the underlying disease
- Auscultation: Friction rub between visceral and parietal layers
- ECG: Concave ST segment elevations in all leads except V1, PR elevated in aVR.
- Other Symptoms: a dry cough, fatigue, fever
Diagnosis of Acute Pericarditis
Diagnosis requires abnormal findings on ECG (see above) with a history of chest pain that changes with body position. Elevated BUN or creatinine are present in the case of uremia. A positive blood culture implies an infectious etiology. Retrospective diagnosis can be made on autopsy if pericardial adhesions are found. A chest X-ray should be taken to rule out effusion.
Differential Diagnoses of Acute Pericarditis
- Acute coronary syndrome
- Angina pectoris
- Coronary artery vasospasm
- Esophageal spasm
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Pulmonary embolism
Therapy of Acute Pericarditis
Treatment of acute pericarditis
In general, provide oxygen, monitor via ECG and serial blood pressure evaluations. Rule out myocardial infarction by EKG and cardiac enzymes (troponin, CK-MB, LDH). Treat pain with morphine. Otherwise, the treatment depends on etiology.
- Treat with NSAIDs such as aspirin.
- Adjuvant therapy consists of colchicine.
Also, treat the underlying condition:
- Antibiotics to treat tuberculosis or other bacterial etiology
- Treat uremia with dialysis
Progression and Prognosis of Acute Pericarditis
Hospitalization for hemodynamically stable patients with normal laboratory results is rarely necessary.
Viral and idiopathic pericarditis is often uncomplicated and self-limiting. Post-myocardial infarct pericarditis is usually a sign of a large infarct and increased mortality. Purulent pericarditis is associated with 40 % mortality while tuberculous pericarditis is closer to 50 % mortality. Uremic pericarditis has a much lower mortality rate.
The solutions are located below the sources.
1. Which cardiovascular symptom is most likely to be observed in a patient with pericarditis?
- Chest pain improves while coughing.
- Chest pain relieved by leaning forward.
- A high-pitched diastolic murmur heard on auscultation.
- A displaced apical click heard on auscultation.
2. Uncomplicated acute pericarditis can be treated with which of the following?
- Administer prednisone
- Cardiac catheterization
- Administer ibuprofen
3. Besides chest pain, what other symptom is associated with pericarditis, especially in bacterial pericarditis?
- Holosystolic heart murmur
- S4 cardiac murmur
- Janeway lesions