Lung Cancer

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Alright, ladies and gentleman, let's take a look at lung cancer. Lung nodule versus a cancer. What’s going on here? A solitary pulmonary nodule. Remember, just because you find a nodule within, let's say CT, you have to be careful, don’t you? Because that density that you’re gonna find, it could be number of things. If its a small density that you’re going to find and there’s many of them, you’re a little worried now because maybe that’s metastasis. If you find a large nodule and it’s rather wide and calcific, then you might be thinking along the lines of granulomatosis with polyangiitis or granulomas, in general. But, if it’s solitary pulmonary nodule, a single density, found on imaging studies such as a CT, in which it’s less than 3 cms in diameter. Now, as a general rule, that 3 cm, you can apply many places including the nodule that you find in the liver, that you might found with cirrhosis, micro-macro nodule. They’re surrounded by normal lung parenchyma, solitary pulmonary nodule, this is not the cancer. However, let's get into actual cancer. The way that this is divided into clinical lung cancer is the following. Let's take a look at our first family and this then includes our bronchogenic carcinoma. Under bronchogenic carcinoma, the way that this is then worded, if you take up any, if you pick up any medical journal, New England, Lancet, whatever. On the first few pages, often times, you have this huge plastered advertisements and it’s dealing with how to treat with what’s known as non-small cell lung cancer. Why do they choose, and as we walk through here, things that you want to keep in mind, why do they choose on every single magazine to be talking about a non-small cell lung cancer?...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Lung Cancer by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Lung Cancer . It contains the following chapters:

    • Lung Cancer
    • Small Lung Cancer
    • Adenocarcinoma
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Large Cell Carcinoma
    • Bronchial Carcinoid
    • Mesothelioma
    • Lung Nodules and Cancer

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Hypercalcemia
    2. Subacute cerebellar degeneration
    3. Lambert Eaton
    4. SIADH
    5. Cushing’s syndrome
    1. High urine osmolarity
    2. Low urine osmolarity
    3. Polyuria
    4. Hypernatremia
    5. High serum osmolarity
    1. Mucin+
    2. Chromoganin A+
    3. Kulchitsky cell proliferation
    4. Neuro-specific enolase+
    5. Small dark blue cells
    1. Chemotherapy with radiation
    2. Radiation alone
    3. Wedge resection
    4. Pneumonectomy
    5. Lobectomy
    1. Mucin +
    2. Multinucleated giant cells
    3. Calretinin +
    4. Chromogranin A
    5. Enolase +
    1. The membrane surrounding the malignancy is intact.
    2. It is a benign tumor.
    3. It commonly affects the upper lobes.
    4. It is associated with clubbing of the digits.
    5. It causes bronchospasms.
    1. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
    2. Osteoarthritis
    3. Flushing of the upper extremities
    4. Digital clubbing
    5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    1. It is associated with cavitation.
    2. Metaplasia is not a precursor.
    3. It is a peripherally located nodule.
    4. It is not associated with smoking.
    5. It has a tall columnar pattern on histology.
    1. Low serum PTH
    2. Hypocalcemia
    3. Urine hyperosmolarity
    4. Serum hypoosmolarity
    5. Hyperphosphatemia
    1. Beta-hCG
    2. ACTH
    3. ADH
    4. T4
    5. PTHrp
    1. Surgical removal
    2. Chemotherapy
    3. Surgical removal followed by chemotherapy
    4. Radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy
    5. Radiotherapy
    1. Pleomorphic giant cells, highly anaplastic and undifferentiated
    2. Keratin pearls and intercellular bridges
    3. Multinucleated giant cells
    4. Tall columnar cells with intact outer membrane
    5. Tall columnar cells and mucin+ staining
    1. Intestines
    2. Lung
    3. Breast
    4. Stomach
    5. Liver
    1. 5-HIAA in the stool
    2. Elevated serum ACTH
    3. Elevated serum IgE
    4. Responsiveness to anti-histamines
    5. Hypercalcemia
    1. Aortic regurgitation
    2. Flushing
    3. Increased vascular permeability
    4. Bronchospasms
    5. Angioedema
    1. Asbestosis
    2. Berylliosis
    3. Coalworker’s pneumoconiosis
    4. Byssinosis
    5. Silicosis
    1. Pleural plaques
    2. Pleural exudative effusion
    3. Calretinin
    4. Cytokeratin
    5. Psammoma bodies
    1. Horner syndrome
    2. SIADH
    3. Flushing of the face
    4. Hypercalcemia
    5. Pleural effusions
    1. Histamine release
    2. Decreased sympathetic output
    3. Ptosis
    4. Anhydrosis
    5. Miosis
    1. Recurrent laryngeal nerve
    2. Pharyngeal nerve
    3. Hypoglossal nerve
    4. Glossopharyngeal nerve
    5. Superior laryngeal nerve
    1. Compression of the superior vena cava
    2. Compression of branches of the vagus nerve
    3. Superimposed infection resulting in hyperthermia
    4. Paraneoplastic syndrome resulting in excessive serotonin release
    5. Compression of the sympathetic chain
    1. Calcified lesion
    2. Hemorrhagic pleural effusion
    3. Older patient
    4. Eccentric calcifications
    5. Glucose avid on PET

    Author of lecture Lung Cancer

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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    Thank You
    By Carlos David V. on 27. November 2016 for Lung Cancer

    Thank You! Liked very much! Very clear and helped me a lot.