Types of IV Fluids (Intravenous Fluids)

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    This is a section once again where we have discussed certain labs or certain therapies throughout the lecture, but you need a place where everything is put together so that you get a firm handle of things and IV fluids is one of them. And as we go through this lecture series, keep in mind as to why you'd want to administer a particular fluid and what type of effect it may then have on your compartments of your total body water. Let's begin. IV fluids, the first classification that we'll be dealing with will be called crystalloids. And the reason that I paused here for crystal is because I want you to think of these electrolytes are being crystal and the reason I say that is all go ahead and introduce the second category that we'll discuss next and those would be colloids. And often times as soon as you get crystalloids and colloids confused, and there is really no need for that. Here the crystalloids, the crystals would be the electrolytes and we primarily are dealing with sodium and chloride as you can imagine. Now, these do not readily cross the plasma membrane and this is something that we have already discussed in reference to sodium chloride. For example, once again organization, you have ECF and ICF. The membrane that separates the ECF and ICF would then be your plasma or cell membrane and you know that electrolytes such as sodium and company do not cross it. Well potassium will, but that obviously is not brought into the discussion here whereas the membrane that separates the ECF, amongst ECF meaning to say the plasma compartment and also the interstitium is then separated by a capillary membrane and then here, of course, your sodium and chloride would readily cross....

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Types of IV Fluids (Intravenous Fluids) by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Fluid and Electrolyte Balance. It contains the following chapters:

    • Types of IV Fluids
    • Crystalloids
    • Colloids
    • Saline: Clinical Terminology
    • Distribution of IVFs
    • IV Fluid: 'D5W'
    • IVFs Summary

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Ringers lactate
    2. Fresh frozen plasma
    3. Whole blood infusion
    4. Cryoprecipitate
    5. 5% Albumin
    1. Crystalloids fill the plasma compartment only.
    2. Crystalloids are unable to cross the cell membrane.
    3. Isotonic crystalloids do not affect intracellular fluid volumes.
    4. Crystalloids are able to cross the capillary membrane.
    5. Crystalloids fill the extracellular fluid compartment.
    1. Colloids only fill the plasma compartment, while crystalloids fill the entire extracellular fluid compartment.
    2. Colloid fluids are only useful for bleeding disorders, while crystalloid fluids are useful for any hypovolemia pathologies.
    3. Crystalloid fluids mainly consist of large proteins, while colloid fluids consist of electrolytes.
    4. Crystalloid fluids are more expensive than colloids to administer.
    5. Crystalloid fluids are more effective than colloids at raising blood pressure in hypovolemic patients.
    1. Colloid fluids tend to distribute into the interstitial space.
    2. Colloid fluids tend to consist of large proteins.
    3. Colloid fluids are unable to cross capillary membranes.
    4. Colloid fluids are unable to cross cell membranes.
    5. Colloid fluids are generally more expensive to administer.
    1. Fresh frozen plasma
    2. 5% Albumin
    3. Cryoprecipitate
    4. 0.45% Normal Saline
    5. 0.9% Normal Saline
    1. 5% Albumin
    2. Fresh frozen plasma
    3. 0.9% normal saline
    4. Dextrose 5% water
    5. Cryoprecipitate
    1. Platelet count
    2. Prothrombin time
    3. All parameters are increased
    4. Bleeding time
    5. Partial thromboblastin time
    1. 154 mmol/L
    2. 308 mmol/L
    3. 100 mmol/L
    4. 50 mmol/L
    5. 77 mmol/L
    1. 500 mL
    2. 1000 mL
    3. 200 mL
    4. 750 mL
    5. 250 mL
    1. Total body water
    2. Extracellular fluid compartment
    3. Interstitial fluid compartment
    4. Intracellular fluid compartment
    5. Plasma compartment only
    1. 154 mmol/L
    2. 308 mmol/L
    3. 100 mmol/L
    4. 50 mmol/L
    5. 77 mmol/L
    1. 250 mL
    2. 750 mL
    3. 1000 mL
    4. 666 mL
    5. 333 mL
    1. 500 mL
    2. 167 mL
    3. 1000 mL
    4. 333 mL
    5. 667 mL
    1. Intravascular compartment
    2. Total body water
    3. Interstitial fluid compartment
    4. Intracellular fluid compartment
    5. Extracellular fluid compartment
    1. It remains within the extracellular fluid compartment.
    2. It is isotonic.
    3. It is distributed across total body water.
    4. Glucose is rapidly metabolized leaving pure water.
    5. It is equivalent to giving a patient pure water.
    1. Osmotic gradient would result in cell swelling and lysis.
    2. It distributes solely into the intracellular fluid compartment.
    3. None of the answers are correct
    4. Pure water would result in cell shrinkage.
    5. Pure water is able to cross all membranes.
    1. 83 mL
    2. 250 mL
    3. 167 mL
    4. 667 mL
    5. 333 mL
    1. Packed Red blood cells
    2. Platelets
    3. Dextrose 5% Water
    4. Cryoprecipitate
    5. Fresh Frozen Plasma
    1. Platelet count
    2. Prothrombin time
    3. Von willebrand factor
    4. Bleeding time
    5. Partial thromboplastin time
    1. Prothrombin time is increased.
    2. It is an issue with glycoprotein Ib.
    3. It is a rare inherited disorder.
    4. It presents with increased bleeding time.
    5. It involves dysfunctional binding to von willebrand factor.
    1. Cryoprecipitate
    2. Packed RBCs
    3. 5% Albumin
    4. Fresh frozen plasma
    5. Platelets
    1. Primary hemochromatosis
    2. Transfusion associated circulatory overload
    3. Citrate chelation of calcium
    4. Hyperkalemia
    5. Transfusion related acute lung injury

    Author of lecture Types of IV Fluids (Intravenous Fluids)

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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    An informative take on the subject
    By Hamed S. on 06. March 2017 for Types of IV Fluids (Intravenous Fluids)

    I enjoyed the lecture on IV fluids as it gave me a different perspective not really discussed in my medical school. Having said that there is an obvious omission in the discussion of fluids! It would be have been wonderful to discuss how to prescribe fluids, calculate volume deficiencies and maintenance fluids. I hope this is covered in the yet to be released Emergency medicine talks.