Dehydration: Isotonic, Hypotonic and Hypertonic Disorders

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Dehydration: Isotonic, Hypotonic and Hypertonic Disorders by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Fluid and Electrolyte Balance. It contains the following chapters:

    • Isotonic, Hypotonic and Hypertonic Disorders
    • Isotonic Fluid Disorders
    • Hypotonic Fluid Disorders
    • Summary of Isotonic and Hypotonic
    • Hypertonic Fluid Disorders
    • Review

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. The amount of Na+ in the vascular compartment divided by total body water.
    2. The amount of Na+ in a liter of serum/plasma in the vascular compartment.
    3. None are equivalent.
    4. All are equivalent.
    5. Total body sodium divided by total body water.
    1. Decreased heart rate
    2. Decreased skin turgor
    3. Positive tilt table test
    4. Decreased blood pressure
    5. Dry mucous membranes
    1. Increased total body sodium content
    2. Increased levels of nutrition
    3. Increased free water excretion
    4. Increased sodium excretion
    5. Increased albumin production
    1. Fluid moves via osmosis.
    2. The patient may have decreased oncotic pressure in the capillary.
    3. Blood pressure may drop.
    4. Total body sodium is in the normal range.
    5. The patient may have increased hydrostatic pressure in the capillary.
    1. Sodium moves across capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid.
    2. Intracellular fluid volume increases.
    3. There is a decrease in plasma volume.
    4. There is a decrease in hydrostatic pressure in the capillary.
    5. Fluid moves due to Starling pressures.
    1. No change in osmotic gradient
    2. Pitting edema
    3. Plasma osmolality changes
    4. Intracellular fluid volume changes
    5. Decrease in blood pressure
    1. 5% albumin
    2. Dextrose 5% water
    3. Dextrose 2.5% water
    4. 3% normal saline
    5. 0.45% normal saline
    1. Cellular swelling
    2. Adult diarrhea
    3. No change in serum sodium concentration
    4. No change in plasma osmolality
    5. Hemorrhage
    1. Capillary membrane is permeable to sodium and water.
    2. Cellular membrane is permeable to sodium and water.
    3. Contraction of extracellular fluid volume.
    4. High protein content of edema fluid.
    5. Shifting of fluid based on osmotic gradient.
    1. Intracellular fluid volume expansion
    2. Extracellular fluid volume expansion
    3. Decrease in oncotic pressure in the capillary
    4. Increase in hydrostatic pressure in the capillary
    5. Extracellular cellular fluid osmolality increase
    1. Diarrhea
    2. Addison’s
    3. Cirrhosis
    4. Psychogenic polydipsia
    5. SIADH
    1. Psychogenic polydipsia
    2. Addison’s disease
    3. Cirrhosis
    4. Right sided heart failure
    5. 21-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
    1. 21 alpha hydroxylase deficiency
    2. Small cell carcinoma of the lung
    3. Nephrotic syndrome
    4. Right sided heart failure
    5. Psychogenic polydipsia
    1. Decreased total body water
    2. Release of catecholamines
    3. Increased total body sodium
    4. Stimulation of ADH release
    5. Decrease in effective circulating volume
    1. Central pontine myelinolysis
    2. Pitting edema
    3. Nephrotic syndrome
    4. Hypertension
    5. Cellular swelling
    1. ECF volume, ECF osmolarity, ICF volume, ICF osmolarity
    2. ICF volume, ECF volume, ICF osmolarity, ICF volume
    3. ECF osmolarity, ECF volume, ICF volume, ICF osmolarity
    4. ECF osmolarity, ECF volume, ICF osmolarity, ICF volume,
    5. ECF volume, ICF volume, ECF osmolarity, ICF osmolarity
    1. Decreased serum sodium
    2. Decreased total body water
    3. Extracellular volume contraction
    4. Intracellular volume contraction
    5. Decreased total body sodium
    1. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
    2. Addisons disease
    3. Isotonic loss of fluid
    4. Excessive isotonic saline infusion
    5. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    1. All of these changes are seen in both
    2. Increase in ECF volume
    3. Increase in total body water
    4. Decrease in ICF osmolarity
    5. Decrease in ECF osmolarity
    1. Hyperglycemia
    2. Hyperkalemia
    3. Hyperuricemia
    4. Hyperphosphatemia
    5. Hypercalcemia
    1. Excess fluid is in the ECF is removed due to osmotic diuresis.
    2. Capillary membrane permeability to sodium.
    3. Excess fluid is lost insensibly.
    4. Excess fluid shifts to the interstitium.
    5. Cell membrane permeability to sodium.
    1. Interstitial fluid volume expansion
    2. Decrease in ICF osmolarity
    3. ECF volume contraction
    4. ICF volume expansion
    5. Decrease in plasma osmolarity
    1. Isolated decrease in total body water
    2. ICF volume expansion
    3. Decreased serum sodium concentration
    4. Increased total body sodium
    5. Decreased Plasma osmolarity
    1. Serum Na is decreased due to dilution.
    2. Extracellular fluid is lost via osmotic diuresis.
    3. There is no hyponatremia in the setting of diabetic ketoacidosis
    4. Increased plasma osmolarity promotes intracellular Na uptake.
    5. Fluid shift from the vasculature to the interstitium.
    1. SIADH
    2. Cirrhosis
    3. Kwashiorkor
    4. Right sided heart failure
    5. Infusion of sodium containing antibiotics
    1. Diabetes Insipidus
    2. Addisons disease
    3. 21 alpha hydroxylase deficiency
    4. Diabetic ketoacidosis
    5. Excessive sweating
    1. Change in plasma osmolarity
    2. Vascular compartment contraction
    3. Decrease in total body sodium
    4. Osmotic diuresis
    5. Interstitial fluid compartment expansion

    Author of lecture Dehydration: Isotonic, Hypotonic and Hypertonic Disorders

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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