Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection caused by the gram-negative spirochete Spirochete Treponema is a gram-negative, microaerophilic spirochete. Owing to its very thin structure, it is not easily seen on Gram stain, but can be visualized using dark-field microscopy. This spirochete contains endoflagella, which allow for a characteristic corkscrew movement. Treponema Borrelia burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi A specific species of bacteria, part of the borrelia burgdorferi group, whose common name is lyme disease spirochete. Borrelia. Lyme disease is transmitted by the black-legged Ixodes tick (commonly known as a deer tick Deer tick Borrelia), which is only found in specific geographic regions. Patient presentation can vary depending on the stage of the disease and may include a characteristic erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion migrans rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Neurologic, cardiac, ocular, and joint manifestations are also common in later stages. Diagnosis relies on clinical findings and tick exposure, and is supported by serological testing. Antibiotics are used for treatment. Avoidance of tick exposure is key to prevention in endemic areas.
Last updated: Nov 7, 2022
The incubation Incubation The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic. Rabies Virus period for Lyme disease is 3–30 days (mean of 7 days). The clinical manifestations of Lyme disease are broken down into 3 stages: early localized disease, early disseminated disease, and late disease.
Symptoms appear in 1–5 weeks and resolve in approximately 30 days.
Symptoms develop in weeks to months in untreated patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.
Symptoms develop in months to years in untreated patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship.
Common symptoms of Lyme disease can be remembered by the mnemonic phrase “a key Lyme pie to the FACE.”
Laboratory tests are only significant in conjunction with the clinical history due to a high false-positive and false-negative rate.
Intravenous (IV) antibiotics:
|Asymptomatic patient with a tick bite requires no prophylactic treatment unless:||If meets criteria, then must receive prophylactic doxycycline within 72 hours of bite|
|Erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion migrans (localized disease)|
|Early disseminated disease:|
|Cardiac and severe neurologic manifestations||Intravenous ceftriaxone Ceftriaxone A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic and cefotaxime derivative with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears. Cephalosporins|
|Reinfection||Same antibiotic as recommended for a primary infection Primary infection Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2|
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