Pandemics are defined as illnesses that spread over multiple countries or continents, affecting the entire world. The difference between outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics is essential in understanding the impact these diseases have upon the world.
Previous knowledge of basic epidemiology and the characteristics of infectious microorganisms are needed in order to comprehend how these infectious illnesses are spread. In order to properly document and assess the spread of pandemics, basic concepts such as fatality rate, infection rate, and reproduction number are necessary.
COVID-19 or Coronavirus disease 2019 is the world’s latest pandemic. It will be used as an example and point of reference in order to explain these concepts and their significance. A solid grasp on the epidemiologic concepts behind spreading pandemics can help the world face, prevent, and control new infectious diseases.