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Scarlet Fever

Scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever is a clinical syndrome consisting of streptococcal pharyngitis Streptococcal Pharyngitis Rheumatic Fever accompanied by fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever and a characteristic rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever caused by pyrogenic exotoxins Exotoxins Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment. Bacteriology. Scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever is a non-suppurative complication of streptococcal infection that is more commonly seen in children. Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency peaks during the winter Winter Pityriasis Rosea and spring in temperate climates. The rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever begins in the 1st 24–48 hours of illness. Starting in the face or neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess, the exanthem Exanthem Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (erythema infectiosum), and sixth (exanthema subitum) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox spreads to the trunk and extremities but spares the palms and soles. With the infection, the face looks flushed, accompanied by circumoral pallor and a strawberry tongue Strawberry tongue Kawasaki Disease (enlarged papillae Papillae Lips and Tongue: Anatomy). The minute papules feel like sandpaper. Diagnosis is usually made clinically, confirmed with a rapid antigen detection Antigen detection Respiratory Syncytial Virus test (RADT) or throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy culture. Treatment is with penicillin Penicillin Rheumatic Fever or amoxicillin Amoxicillin A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. Penicillins.

Last updated: 19 Nov, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

Scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever (also called “scarlatina”) is a diffuse erythematous eruption or rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever that occurs in association with pharyngitis Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis.

Epidemiology

  • Occurs in children > adults: Children 5–15 years of age represent the majority of cases.
  • Peak incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: winter Winter Pityriasis Rosea and spring in temperate climates
  • Develops in < 10% of streptococcal throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy infection
  • Has become uncommon since the introduction of penicillin Penicillin Rheumatic Fever

Etiology

  • Caused by β-hemolytic, pyrogenic toxin-producing strains of Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococci (GAS)
  • Key mediator of the characteristic rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxins Toxic Shock Syndrome (SPEs) A, B, and C

Pathophysiology

  • Transmission of S. pyogenes is primarily via respiratory secretions.
  • Local infection occurs:
    • Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology adhere to the pharyngeal epithelium Epithelium The epithelium is a complex of specialized cellular organizations arranged into sheets and lining cavities and covering the surfaces of the body. The cells exhibit polarity, having an apical and a basal pole. Structures important for the epithelial integrity and function involve the basement membrane, the semipermeable sheet on which the cells rest, and interdigitations, as well as cellular junctions. Surface Epithelium: Histology, causing:
      • Pharyngitis Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis ( sore throat Sore throat Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis)
      • Purulent tonsillar exudate Exudate Exudates are fluids, cells, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from blood vessels usually from inflamed tissues. Pleural Effusion
      • Cervical lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy
      • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Some strains of S. pyogenes produce pyrogenic exotoxins Exotoxins Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment. Bacteriology, which act as superantigens Superantigens Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II mhc proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the t-cell receptor’s pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions. Staphylococcus:
    • Antigens stimulate T cells T cells Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified – cytotoxic (t-lymphocytes, cytotoxic) and helper T-lymphocytes (t-lymphocytes, helper-inducer). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the thymus gland and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen. T cells: Types and Functions, which release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology cytokines Cytokines Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner. Adaptive Immune Response leading to an inflammatory cutaneous reaction and blood vessel dilatation.
    • Produces the characteristic rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever of scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • While the pharynx Pharynx The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy/ throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy is the most common site of replication, scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever may follow streptococcal skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions and soft tissue Soft Tissue Soft Tissue Abscess infection.
Streptococcus pyogenes

Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS)

Image: “Photomicrograph of Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria Bacteria Bacteria are prokaryotic single-celled microorganisms that are metabolically active and divide by binary fission. Some of these organisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diseases. Bacteriology” by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. License: Public domain.

Clinical Presentation

Symptoms

  • Initial symptoms of a child with scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever will often begin with:
    • Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
    • Headache Headache The symptom of pain in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of headache disorders. Brain Abscess
    • Nausea Nausea An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. Antiemetics and vomiting Vomiting The forcible expulsion of the contents of the stomach through the mouth. Hypokalemia
    • Malaise Malaise Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus
    • Sore throat Sore throat Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis with difficulty swallowing Swallowing The act of taking solids and liquids into the gastrointestinal tract through the mouth and throat. Gastrointestinal Motility
  • Scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    • Rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever usually appears 24–48 hours after the onset of illness.
    • Diffuse, starting at the neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess/upper trunk, spreading to the rest of the trunk and extremities
    • Spares the palms and soles
    • Most pronounced in the groin Groin The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh. Male Genitourinary Examination and axilla Axilla The axilla is a pyramid-shaped space located between the upper thorax and the arm. The axilla has a base, an apex, and 4 walls (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). The base of the pyramid is made up of the axillary skin. The apex is the axillary inlet, located between the 1st rib, superior border of the scapula, and clavicle. Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy
    • Can last 5 days
    • 7–10 days after the resolution of the rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions desquamation Desquamation Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) (especially fingers, feet)

Signs

  • Vital signs: elevated body temperature Body Temperature The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal. Heatstroke
  • General appearance:
    • Ill appearing
    • Flushed face 
  • Head:
    • Circumoral pallor
    • Bright red mucous membranes with petechiae Petechiae Primary Skin Lesions 
    • Erythematous, edematous tonsils Tonsils Tonsillitis with a white-grayish exudate Exudate Exudates are fluids, cells, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from blood vessels usually from inflamed tissues. Pleural Effusion
    • Strawberry tongue Strawberry tongue Kawasaki Disease” (enlarged papillae Papillae Lips and Tongue: Anatomy on a coated tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy):
      • Initially (24–48 hours), tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy is covered with a whitish membrane through which papillae Papillae Lips and Tongue: Anatomy protrude. 
      • The membrane sloughs off, and a reddish tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy and prominent papillae Papillae Lips and Tongue: Anatomy are seen.
  • Neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess: cervical lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy, often tender
  • Skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions:
    • Rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever:
      • In the neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess/trunk, axilla Axilla The axilla is a pyramid-shaped space located between the upper thorax and the arm. The axilla has a base, an apex, and 4 walls (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). The base of the pyramid is made up of the axillary skin. The apex is the axillary inlet, located between the 1st rib, superior border of the scapula, and clavicle. Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy, groin Groin The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh. Male Genitourinary Examination, and extremities (palms, soles spared)
      • Begins as small, flat, erythematous macules with a sunburn appearance that blanches with pressure
      • If seen later in the disease, small papules are noted, giving a coarse “sandpaper” feel to the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions.
    • “Pastia’s lines”: accentuated rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions folds (e.g., axilla Axilla The axilla is a pyramid-shaped space located between the upper thorax and the arm. The axilla has a base, an apex, and 4 walls (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). The base of the pyramid is made up of the axillary skin. The apex is the axillary inlet, located between the 1st rib, superior border of the scapula, and clavicle. Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy)
Strawberry tongue and scarlet fever

Strawberry tongue Strawberry tongue Kawasaki Disease”: early in the disease, the tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy could be covered by a white membrane or coating through which the papillae Papillae Lips and Tongue: Anatomy are seen. This layer sloughs off and reveals a bright red tongue Tongue The tongue, on the other hand, is a complex muscular structure that permits tasting and facilitates the process of mastication and communication. The blood supply of the tongue originates from the external carotid artery, and the innervation is through cranial nerves. Lips and Tongue: Anatomy with prominent papillae Papillae Lips and Tongue: Anatomy. A strawberry tongue Strawberry tongue Kawasaki Disease results from a general inflammatory response early in the course of the disease.

Image by Lecturio.

Diagnosis and Management

Diagnosis

  • High suspicion based on symptomatology and examination
  • Streptococcal infection confirmed by:
    • Rapid antigen detection Antigen detection Respiratory Syncytial Virus test (RADT):
      • In children and adolescents with negative RADT tests: Perform throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy culture. 
      • Positive RADTs: A back-up culture is not needed.
    • Throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy culture positive for S. pyogenes
  • Children < 3 years of age: No diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests are important aspects in making a diagnosis. Some of the most important epidemiological values of diagnostic tests include sensitivity and specificity, false positives and false negatives, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and pre-test and post-test probabilities. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests are needed because acute rheumatic fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever is rare in this age group.
  • Other non-specific laboratory findings (depending on the clinical picture and complication(s)) may include:

Management

Management consists of treating the causative agent of pharyngitis Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis, Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes.

  • Goals:
    • Shorten the illness and reduce the spread of infection and suppurative complications.
    • Prevent acute rheumatic fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever.
    • Prevent disease transmission.
  • Antibiotic therapy:
    • Amoxicillin Amoxicillin A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. Penicillins or penicillin Penicillin Rheumatic Fever (drug of choice)
    • Cephalosporins Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are a group of bactericidal beta-lactam antibiotics (similar to penicillins) that exert their effects by preventing bacteria from producing their cell walls, ultimately leading to cell death. Cephalosporins are categorized by generation and all drug names begin with “cef-” or “ceph-.” Cephalosporins (alternative)
    • In cases of penicillin Penicillin Rheumatic Fever allergy Allergy An abnormal adaptive immune response that may or may not involve antigen-specific IgE Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction: clindamycin Clindamycin An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of lincomycin. Lincosamides or macrolide ( azithromycin Azithromycin A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to erythromycin. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. Macrolides and Ketolides)

Course and Complications

Usual course

  • Disease course is typically mild.
  • Clinical improvement is usually seen within days of starting antibiotics.
  • Without treatment, fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever and acute illness abate by 5–7 days.
  • Desquamation Desquamation Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) occurs for up to 4 weeks and is self-limited.
  • Most cases resolve without complications.

Complications

  • Otitis media: acute inflammation Acute Inflammation Inflammation of the middle ear Middle ear The space and structures directly internal to the tympanic membrane and external to the inner ear (labyrinth). Its major components include the auditory ossicles and the eustachian tube that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat. Acute Otitis Media
  • Sinusitis Sinusitis Sinusitis refers to inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses. The condition usually occurs concurrently with inflammation of the nasal mucosa (rhinitis), a condition known as rhinosinusitis. Acute sinusitis is due to an upper respiratory infection caused by a viral, bacterial, or fungal agent. Sinusitis: acute inflammation Acute Inflammation Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses Paranasal Sinuses The 4 pair of paranasal sinuses include the maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses. The sinuses are a group of air-filled cavities located within the facial and cranial skeleton; all are connected to the main nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Paranasal Sinuses: Anatomy
  • Peritonsillar and retropharyngeal abscesses: 
    • Local complication of pharyngitis Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis 
    • Manifests as sore throat Sore throat Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis, localized throat Throat The pharynx is a component of the digestive system that lies posterior to the nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx. The pharynx can be divided into the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal muscles play an integral role in vital processes such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking. Pharynx: Anatomy/ neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways, in a toxic-appearing patient
  • Rheumatic fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever: 
    • Delayed, non-suppurative, autoimmune sequelae of pharyngitis Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis 
    • Occurs 2–4 weeks after infection
    • Major manifestations: arthritis Arthritis Acute or chronic inflammation of joints. Osteoarthritis, carditis Carditis Rheumatic Fever, chorea Chorea Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as choreatic disorders. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of basal ganglia diseases. Huntington Disease, subcutaneous nodules, and erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion marginatum
  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis:
    • Immune complex disease Immune complex disease Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides serum sickness and the arthus reaction, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other immune system diseases including glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus erythematosus, systemic) and polyarteritis nodosa. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis of the glomeruli after GAS infection (nephritogenic strain)
    • Can occur even with antibiotic treatment of preceding infection
    • Occurs 1–4 weeks after S. pyogenes infection ( skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions infection > pharyngitis Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat (pharynx). Pharyngitis is usually caused by an upper respiratory tract infection, which is viral in most cases. It typically results in a sore throat and fever. Other symptoms may include a runny nose, cough, headache, and hoarseness. Pharyngitis)
    • Nephritis ( proteinuria Proteinuria The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of kidney diseases. Nephrotic Syndrome in Children, edema Edema Edema is a condition in which excess serous fluid accumulates in the body cavity or interstitial space of connective tissues. Edema is a symptom observed in several medical conditions. It can be categorized into 2 types, namely, peripheral (in the extremities) and internal (in an organ or body cavity). Edema, hypertension Hypertension Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common disease that manifests as elevated systemic arterial pressures. Hypertension is most often asymptomatic and is found incidentally as part of a routine physical examination or during triage for an unrelated medical encounter. Hypertension, and hematuria Hematuria Presence of blood in the urine. Renal Cell Carcinoma)
  • Bacteremia Bacteremia The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion. Glycopeptides and sepsis Sepsis Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by hypotension despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called septic shock. Sepsis and Septic Shock: 
    • Severe form of S. pyogenes infection ( hematogenous Hematogenous Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Metastases spread more commonly from skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions and soft tissue Soft Tissue Soft Tissue Abscess infection) 
    • Associated with high fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, end organ damage, and marked systemic toxicity Toxicity Dosage Calculation

Differential Diagnosis

  • Kawasaki’s disease: a childhood febrile vasculitis Vasculitis Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the arteries; veins; and rest of the vasculature system in the body. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus that can resemble scarlet fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever by presenting with fevers, cervical adenopathy, buccal erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion, strawberry tongue Strawberry tongue Kawasaki Disease, and desquamation Desquamation Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) of the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions from the fingertips. There may be conjunctival injection and erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion can be found on the palms and soles. Kawasaki’s disease often affects children < 5 years of age.
  • Measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus: a maculopapular Maculopapular Dermatologic Examination rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever that begins behind the ears, hairline, and forehead Forehead The part of the face above the eyes. Melasma. The lesions blanch on pressure. The viral illness is associated with a prodrome Prodrome Symptoms that appear 24–48 hours prior to migraine onset. Migraine Headache of fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis is a common inflammation of the bulbar and/or palpebral conjunctiva. It can be classified into infectious (mostly viral) and noninfectious conjunctivitis, which includes allergic causes. Patients commonly present with red eyes, increased tearing, burning, foreign body sensation, and photophobia. Conjunctivitis, coryza Coryza Inflammation of the nasal mucosa, the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavities. Rhinitis, and cough. Koplik’s spots (small whitish or bluish papules with erythematous bases Bases Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. Acid-Base Balance on the buccal mucosa Buccal mucosa Oral Cancer), may be seen.
  • Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic Shock Syndrome: an acute febrile illness, usually caused by toxin-producing S. aureus S. aureus Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications. Staphylococcus, but also occasionally by Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus spp. (toxic shock Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition associated with impaired circulation that results in tissue hypoxia. The different types of shock are based on the underlying cause: distributive (↑ cardiac output (CO), ↓ systemic vascular resistance (SVR)), cardiogenic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), hypovolemic (↓ CO, ↑ SVR), obstructive (↓ CO), and mixed. Types of Shock-like syndrome). The rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is macular and erythematous, and involves the face, neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess, axilla Axilla The axilla is a pyramid-shaped space located between the upper thorax and the arm. The axilla has a base, an apex, and 4 walls (anterior, medial, lateral, posterior). The base of the pyramid is made up of the axillary skin. The apex is the axillary inlet, located between the 1st rib, superior border of the scapula, and clavicle. Axilla and Brachial Plexus: Anatomy, and groin Groin The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh. Male Genitourinary Examination. The skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions is tender with peeling areas of epidermis Epidermis The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of epithelium: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis). Skin: Structure and Functions.
  • Adverse reaction to medication: morbilliform Morbilliform Erythema Infectiosum eruptions due to immune reactions to drugs. A morbilliform Morbilliform Erythema Infectiosum rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever can occur in up to 5% of patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship receiving drugs such as penicillins Penicillins Beta-lactam antibiotics contain a beta-lactam ring as a part of their chemical structure. Drugs in this class include penicillin G and V, penicillinase-sensitive and penicillinase-resistant penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and aztreonam. Penicillins, sulfonamides Sulfonamides A group of compounds that contain the structure so2nh2. Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim, and phenytoin Phenytoin An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs. First-Generation Anticonvulsant Drugs. The rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever can be accompanied by pruritus Pruritus An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief. Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema), fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever, eosinophilia Eosinophilia Abnormal increase of eosinophils in the blood, tissues or organs. Autosomal Dominant Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome, and lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy.
Table: Comparison of common childhood rashes Rashes Rashes are a group of diseases that cause abnormal coloration and texture to the skin. The etiologies are numerous but can include irritation, allergens, infections, or inflammatory conditions. Rashes that present in only 1 area of the body are called localized rashes. Generalized rashes occur diffusely throughout the body. Generalized and Localized Rashes
Number Other names for the disease Etiology Description
1st disease 1st disease Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus
  • Measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus
  • Rubeola Rubeola Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus
  • 14-day measles 14-day measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus
  • Morbilli Morbilli Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus
Measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus morbillivirus Morbillivirus A genus of the family paramyxoviridae (subfamily paramyxovirinae) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. Measles virus is the type species. Measles Virus
  • Cough, coryza Coryza Inflammation of the nasal mucosa, the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavities. Rhinitis, conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis is a common inflammation of the bulbar and/or palpebral conjunctiva. It can be classified into infectious (mostly viral) and noninfectious conjunctivitis, which includes allergic causes. Patients commonly present with red eyes, increased tearing, burning, foreign body sensation, and photophobia. Conjunctivitis
  • Koplik’s spots (blue-white spots with a red halo) on the buccal membrane
  • Maculopapular Maculopapular Dermatologic Examination rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever begins on the face and behind the ears → spreads to trunk/extremities
2nd disease
  • Scarlet Fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Scarlatina
Streptococcus Streptococcus Streptococcus is one of the two medically important genera of gram-positive cocci, the other being Staphylococcus. Streptococci are identified as different species on blood agar on the basis of their hemolytic pattern and sensitivity to optochin and bacitracin. There are many pathogenic species of streptococci, including S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. pneumoniae, and the viridans streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes
3rd disease 3rd disease An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus
  • Rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus
  • German measles German measles An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus
  • 3-day measles 3-day measles An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus
Rubella Rubella An acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the lymphatic system. Rubella Virus virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology
  • Asymptomatic in 50% of cases
  • Fine macular rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever on the face (behind the ears) → spreads to the neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess, trunk, and extremities (spares palms/soles)
  • Forscheimer’s spots: Pinpoint red macules and petechiae Petechiae Primary Skin Lesions can be seen over the soft palate Palate The palate is the structure that forms the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity. This structure is divided into soft and hard palates. Palate: Anatomy/ uvula Uvula A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat. Peritonsillar Abscess
  • Generalized tender lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy is lymph node enlargement (> 1 cm) and is benign and self-limited in most patients. Etiologies include malignancy, infection, and autoimmune disorders, as well as iatrogenic causes such as the use of certain medications. Generalized lymphadenopathy often indicates underlying systemic disease. Lymphadenopathy
4th disease
  • Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), also known as Ritter disease and staphylococcal epidermal necrolysis, is a toxin-mediated condition caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The exfoliative toxin produced disseminates and cleaves desmoglein 1 in the epidermis, causing separation and detachment of the skin. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)
  • Filatow-Dukes’ disease
  • Ritter’s disease
Due to Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications. Brain Abscess strains that make epidermolytic (exfoliative) toxin
  • Some believe that 4th disease is a misdiagnosis and, thus, nonexistent.
  • The term was dropped in the 1960s and is only used for medical trivia today.
  • Begins with a diffuse erythematous rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever that usually begins around the mouth → fluid-filled bullae Bullae Erythema Multiforme or cutaneous blisters → rupture and desquamate
  • Nikolsky’s sign: Applying pressure on the skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions with a finger (stroking) results in sloughing off of upper layers.
5th disease Erythema Erythema Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of disease processes. Chalazion infectiosum Erythrovirus or parvovirus B19 Parvovirus B19 Primate erythroparvovirus 1 (generally referred to as parvovirus B19, B19 virus, or sometimes erythrovirus B19) ranks among the smallest DNA viruses. Parvovirus B19 is of the family Parvoviridae and genus Erythrovirus. In immunocompetent humans, parvovirus B19 classically results in erythema infectiosum (5th disease) or “slapped cheek syndrome.” Parvovirus B19 ( Primate erythroparvovirus 1 Primate erythroparvovirus 1 Primate erythroparvovirus 1 (generally referred to as Parvovirus B19, B19 virus, or sometimes Erythrovirus B19) ranks among the smallest DNA viruses. Parvovirus B19 is of the family parvoviridae and genus erythrovirus. In immunocompetent humans, Parvovirus B19 classically results in erythema infectiosum (5th disease) or “slapped cheek syndrome. “. Parvovirus B19)
  • Facial erythema (“slapped-cheek rash”) that consist of red papules on the cheeks Cheeks The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth. Melasma
  • Begins on the face → spreads to the extremities → extends to trunk/buttocks
  • Initially confluent, then becomes net-like or reticular as it clears
6th disease
  • Exanthem Exanthem Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke’s disease), fifth (erythema infectiosum), and sixth (exanthema subitum) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox subitum
  • Roseola infantum Roseola infantum An acute, short-lived, viral disease of infants and young children characterized by a high fever at onset that drops to normal after 3-4 days and the concomitant appearance of a macular or maculopapular rash that appears first on the trunk and then spreads to other areas. It is the sixth of the classical exanthematous diseases and is caused by HHV-6. Human Herpesvirus 6 and 7
  • Rose rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever of infants
  • 3-day fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
Human herpesvirus 6B or human herpesvirus 7
  • Sudden onset of high fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever
  • Nagayama spots: papular spots on the soft palate Palate The palate is the structure that forms the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity. This structure is divided into soft and hard palates. Palate: Anatomy/ uvula Uvula A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat. Peritonsillar Abscess
  • Rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever begins as fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever resolves (the term “ exanthem Exanthem Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke’s disease), fifth (erythema infectiosum), and sixth (exanthema subitum) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology. Varicella-Zoster Virus/Chickenpox subitum” describes “surprise” of rash Rash Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever after the fever Fever Fever is defined as a measured body temperature of at least 38°C (100.4°F). Fever is caused by circulating endogenous and/or exogenous pyrogens that increase levels of prostaglandin E2 in the hypothalamus. Fever is commonly associated with chills, rigors, sweating, and flushing of the skin. Fever subsides)
  • Numerous rose-pink, almond-shaped macules on the trunk and neck Neck The part of a human or animal body connecting the head to the rest of the body. Peritonsillar Abscess → sometimes spreads to face/extremities

References

  1. Bryant, A. E., & Stevens, D. L. (2020). Streptococcus pyogenes. In J. E. Bennett MD, R. Dolin MD, & M. J. Blaser MD (Eds.), Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases (pp. 2446-2461.e5). https://www.clinicalkey.es/#!/content/3-s2.0-B9780323482554001971
  2. Pichichero, M.E., & Baron, E.L. (Eds.) (2019). Complications of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. UpToDate. Retrieved 6 Dec 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com-streptococcal complications 
  3. Riedel, S., Hobden, J.A., Miller, S., Morse, S.A., Mietzner, T.A., Detrick, B., Mitchell, T.G., Sakanari, J.A., Hotez, P., & Mejia, R. (Eds.). (2019). The streptococci, enterococci, and related genera. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, 28e. McGraw-Hill.
  4. Sanders, M., & Speer, L. (2019). Scarlet fever and strawberry tongue. In Usatine, R.P., Smith, M.A., Mayeaux, Jr. E.J., & Chumley H.S. (Eds.). The Color Atlas and Synopsis of Family Medicine, 3e. McGraw-Hill.
  5. Sotoodian, B., & Rao, J. (2020). Scarlet fever. Medscape. Retrieved 6 Dec 2020, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1053253-overview#a7
  6. Wald, E.R. (2020). Group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children and adolescents: Clinical features and diagnosis. UpToDate. Inc. Retrieved 6 Dec 2020 from https://www.uptodate.com- streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis
  7. Wessels, M. R. (2018). Streptococcal infections. In J. L. Jameson, A. S. Fauci, D. L. Kasper, S. L. Hauser, D. L. Longo, & J. Loscalzo (Eds.), Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 20e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?aid=1160013257

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