The lower limbs are the inferior extensions of the trunk, providing humans with the ability to traverse the environment and cover large terrains by ambulating (i.e., walking/running), as well as to carry heavy loads. Grossly speaking, each lower limb is composed of three articulated segments: the thigh, the leg, and the foot.
In this course, the student will be introduced to the osteology of the lower limb; its muscles, irrigation, and innervation; and a detailed look at the anatomy of the foot.
For optimal comprehension, the student is encouraged to correlate the lessons of this course with their counterparts in histology, physiology, and embryology.
In trauma situations, the limbs are frequently injured. In situations of high-energy trauma, for example, the lower limbs are used to brace for impact, shield the trunk, and create distance from the noxious stimulus by kicking. It can be noted that since the lower limbs are the usual means of locomotion for humans, they are often subject to potential injury.
For the adequate diagnosis and management of fractures and other conditions that affect the lower limbs, a physician and nurse are required to have a good understanding of the anatomy of the upper limbs. In the field of orthopedics, both upper and lower limbs are of special interest because of the need for surgical correction of certain fractures.
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