Bones and Surface Anatomy of Lower Limb

by James Pickering, PhD

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    00:01 In this lecture, we’re going to look at the surface anatomy and osteology of the lower limb, which will set you up to the remaining lectures in this part of the course which covers lower limb anatomy. So we’re going to, first of all, start with the surface anatomy and look at the various regions of the lower limb, the gluteal, thigh, leg, and foot.

    00:23 And then we’re going to look at the bones that make up the lower limb.

    00:27 We’ll look at the hip bone, the ischium, pubis, and ilium and then we’ll look at the femur, the tibia, fibula, the tarsal bones, the metatarsals, and phalanges.

    00:38 We’ll look at a numerous bony landmarks on each of these individual bones and then we’ll consider some movements that are possible with the lower limb. So you should be familiar with the general body plan that we have and previously, we looked at the bones and the muscles that form the upper limb or the superior appendicular skeleton. And now, we’re really associated with the lower limb which we can see here. We’ve got the lower limb forming by the thigh and the leg which we’ll talk about. But what we can see on the screen here are some surface features of the lower limb, the inferior appendicular skeleton. So we have the anterior surface here and we have the posterior surface here. So we can see the inferior appendicular skeleton forms the lower limb, and it is specialized for locomotion, for movement.

    01:34 It’s also specialized to maintain balance, maintaining posture, and supporting the body’s weight.

    01:41 Unlike the upper limb, it contains a number of specialized joints. It is attached to the axial skeleton via the pelvic girdle. And we can see on the screen on this anterior and posterior view, we can see we have the gluteal region. This is really only observed on the posterior aspect here. We can imagine where the sacrum would be and we have the gluteal fold separating the inferior aspect of the gluteal region from the posterior aspect of the thigh.

    02:12 And here, we have a small little protrusion which is the greater trochanter. You can see that on the posterior surface here laterally, and also laterally, here on this anterior surface.

    02:24 And this is where we have the anterior region of the thigh. We can see sartorius muscle will be passing down in this direction, and we can see it’s originating from the anterior superior iliac spine. We can see the inguinal ligament is passing down towards the pubic tubercle. We can see we’ve got the impression of the knee and the patella anteriorly in this lower limb, and we can see where we have the head of the fibula and the tibial tuberosity.

    02:52 We can also see the fibula head protruding laterally on this posterior view.

    02:58 We can see the bulk of muscle on the posterior leg formed by gastrocnemius and we can also appreciate a very sharp anterior border of the tibia. And then we pass down into the foot.

    03:11 We go past both the medial and the lateral malleolus which can be palpated. And then we move on to the dorsum of the foot, and underneath, we have the sole. So some regions and some key surface landmarks. Now, the axial skeleton, remember, is what supports the body, the core of the body. And attached to the axial skeleton, we have the appendicular skeleton, the superior appendicular skeleton being for the upper limb, and the inferior appendicular skeleton being for the lower limb. We can see on the skeleton here the inferior appendicular skeleton.

    03:49 We have the femur, which articulates with the hip bone via the head of the femur.

    03:53 And we can see this is deviated medially towards the midline. So we have this obliquely running long bone, the femur. We can see it articulates the knee joints with the tibia, which is orientated vertically. And we have this running down towards the ankle joint. Running anterior to the femur, we have the patella which we can see here and running lateral to the tibia, we have the fibula. The fibula isn’t necessarily involved in weight bearing, but the fibula alongside the interosseous membrane joining the two bones offers a large surface area for muscle attachments. We then have a whole series of tarsal bones. These are analogous to the carpal bones in the wrist. And then we have metatarsals just like we had metacarpals. Then finally, the digits of the foot are formed by the phalanges. So let’s move on to looking at some of the important features of these bones. We’ll start off with the hip bone. And the hip bone is actually formed by three bones that are fused together primarily at the acetabulum.

    05:04 And we can see here we have a medial surface view, and here, we would have the anterior aspect.

    05:11 We’ve got the pubic symphysis surface here, and we’ve got the posterior surface here.

    05:17 This side is a lateral surface. So we have the anterior aspect here, and we have the posterior aspect here. And this is a superior surface looking down. So anteriorly, it would be here. Posteriorly, it would be here. And this will be the medial surface. And we could make out the ischium, the ilium, and the pubis for all of these bones. Let’s start by looking at the ilium. We can see the ilium is this large wing-shaped bone. It’s the most superior and largest of the three bones, and it forms the superior part of the acetabulum.

    05:55 So if we look here on the lateral surface, this is all ilium here, and we can see it’s actually going to form the superior parts of the acetabulum. So a line going in approximately this direction here would be the separation of the ilium with the ischium and the pubis. So this line here is separating the ilium above. The body of the ilium, if we have a look here, on the lateral surface, we can see the body of the ilium. We can see it here with the superior surface, the body of the ilium, and that’s joining to the pubis and the ischium at the acetabulum like I said. Then we have this large wing of the ilium, and we can see two parts of that. We can see the ala here, this large flat surface. And then at the top of this wing, we can see we have the iliac crest. We can see the iliac crest is running over here. See, on the lateral surface, we can also see on this medial surface. Within the iliac crest, we can see on the superior surface, there are a couple of features. So if we look for the bony landmarks of the ilium. Then most anteriorly, we can see it here on this medial surface, we’ve got the anterior superior iliac spine. So, the iliac crest is coming around the top, and it finishes here as the anterior superior iliac spine. Inferior, we have an anterior inferior iliac spine. And these bony landmarks are important because they offer attachment sites for muscles. More posteriorly, we’ll find we have the posterior superior iliac spine, and then below it, we’ll have the posterior inferior iliac spine.

    07:44 And we can see this on this medial surface. We can also see them on the lateral surface.

    07:49 Here’s the anterior superior iliac spine, anterior inferior iliac spine. And here we have our two posterior iliac spines. And we could make them out on this superior view as well. If we were to just look at the lateral surface of the ilium, then this is important because it gives rise to attachments for gluteus maximus. In order to be comfortable with the attachments of gluteus maximus, we need to be aware of some gluteal lines. So here, we can see a whole series of gluteal lines; anterior, inferior, and posterior. Here, we can see an anterior gluteal line. See that here. Here, we can see inferior gluteal line running alongside the body of the ilium. Here, we can see a posterior gluteal line running alongside the posterior iliac spines. So it’s the important gluteal lines which you should be familiar with as we look at the attachment sites later on of the gluteal muscles. Now let’s turn to the ischium. The ischium is most posteriorly located, and it’s the postero-inferior aspect of the hip bone, and also the acetabulum. So here on this lateral surface where we can see the acetabulum, if the ilium was superior from this line here, then the ischium is coming down into this region. So the ischium is everything below this line we can see here. Again, it’s uniting with the pubis and the ilium at the acetabulum. We can see the body of the ischium on this medial surface. So here, the organs of the pelvis have been removed and we can see a nice clear body of the ischium. Remember, this connects the ilium and the pubis at the acetabulum. We can see it’s on the acetabulus surface here. We can also recognize the ramus of the ischium, and the ramus of the ischium is important. It connects the inferior pubic ramus of the pubic bone. So here, if we look at this lateral view, we can see running down here from the body of the ischium, we have the ramus of the ischium, and that runs towards the inferior pubic ramus. Collectively, that forms the ischiopubic ramus here. We can see that on this lateral surface. We can also see it coming down here on this medial surface, and we can see it running down here on this superior surface. It’s also going to form the obturator foramen which we can see this large space here. If we look at the ischium in some bony landmarks, then some important bony landmarks protruding posteriorly from the ischium, we have two. We have the ischial spine and the ischial tuberosity. Seen here on the medial surface view, but projecting posteriorly, we have the ischial spine superiorly and the ischial tuberosity inferiorly. On this lateral view, we can also see it.

    10:57 So again here is anteriorly, and projecting posteriorly, we have the ischial spine and we have the ischial tuberosity. These bony landmarks are important as they create the greater and lesser sciatic notches. We can see here, we have the greater sciatic notch running from the posterior inferior iliac spine all the way around to the ischial spine here, the greater sciatic notch running around here. We then have running from the ischial spine this little concavity here, and that is the lesser sciatic notch. Later on, we’ll see how these are converted into foramina. But now let’s turn to the pubis or the pubic bone. This is the antero-lateral part of the hip bone, and the more anterior part of the acetabulum.

    11:46 So again, we can draw a kind of cross. Here we’ve got the separation with the ilium above, and then we come down here, and posteriorly, we find the ischium. And then anteriorly just here, we have the pubis. We have the pubic bone. So just coming in this lower anterior part of the acetabulum, all of this now becomes the pubis. The body of the pubis connects the left and right pubic bones at the pubic symphysis. So if we look to this superior surface, we can see the body of the pubis here. And this is going to run along to the other body of the pubis on the other pubic bone. So these unites at the pubic symphysis.

    12:34 And the pubic symphysis will be here. On this superior view, you can see the body of the pubis will go and it will connect to the body of the pubis on the other side. We can see this as well here on this medial surface passing towards the symphyseal surface where the pubic symphysis will be located. The pubis has two rami. It has a superior which passes towards the ischium, and has an inferior which passes to the ischium as the ischiopubic ramus.

    13:06 So here, we can see the superior pubic ramus running in this direction, and here we can see the inferior pubic ramus running in this direction. Here, with the help of the ischium, we can see the formation of the obturator foramen where we have the superior pubic ramus here, and we have the inferior pubic ramus here forming this C part of the obturator foramen.

    13:32 The ischium will then form this more posterior aspect. If we look at some bony landmarks on the pubis then antero-superior border of the pubic body, so here, we find the pubic crest. And here we find this pubic crest located just here. Laterally on the pubic crest we have the pubic tubercle. The posterior margin of the superior pubic ramus is known as the pecten pubis, and that is running along in this direction. This is a sharp raised edge that forms the pelvic brim. So at some important bony landmarks, we have the pubic crest. Apart the pubic crest, we have the pubic tubercle. And then we have the pecten pubis which forms the pelvic brim. So, there’s a whole series of bony landmarks on the hip bone. If we now look at the hip bone itself, then we can see that we have these greater and lesser sciatic foramina, and these are converted into greater and lesser sciatic notches via these two ligaments; the sacrospinous and the sacrotuberous.

    14:44 So we can see the sacrospinous is forming this greater sciatic foramen and the sacrotuberous and the sacrospinous are forming the lesser sciatic foramen. We also, as I mentioned, have the obturator foramen. It’s important to bear in mind the hip in its anatomical position, and that is tilted a lot more anteriorly than people may expect. This means that the anterior superior iliac spine and the anterior superior aspect of the pubis are really in the same coronal plane. It’s tilted a lot more forwards. This means the internal surface of the pubis here is facing superiorly, and the pelvic inlet here is more vertical than it is horizontal.

    15:32 So the hip bone is actually tilted more forwards. Now let’s move on to the femur, the femur which is the thigh bone within the thigh. We can see here we have an anterior right femur, and we have a posterior right femur. Here we have the anterior view of the right femur. We’ve got the head of the femur here. It’s large, it’s spherical, and articulates with the acetabulum at the hip joint. It contains a depression medially, which is the fovea here, and this contains the attachment site for the ligaments of the head of the femur.

    16:13 The neck joins the head to the shaft. So here we can see the neck of the femur, and it contains two trochanters, a greater and a lesser trochanter. And these are clearly seen on the posterior view. Running between the two trochanters on these anterior aspects, we have the intertrochanteric line. And that’s running between the two trochanters on this anterior aspect.

    16:39 If we look at the shaft, then it’s relatively dull. It’s smooth. It’s rounded on the anterior surface. Posteriorly, there are some features we’ll mention. Distally though on this anterior surface, we can see some femoral condyles. We can also see passing towards these condyles, the medial and lateral epicondyles. And these again give rise to those condyles which articulate with the tibial condyles and form the knee joint. We can also see a smooth region here, and that is the patellar surface. If we look at the posterior view now of the femur, we can still see we’ve got our head, we’ve got our neck, and we can see we’ve got a greater trochanter now, and clearly, a lesser trochanter. But here, we can see we now have an intertrochanteric crest. We don’t have that line.

    17:32 Looking at the shaft, we can see running down from these trochanters, we have the lateral and the medial lip that forms the linea aspera. Superiorly, the lateral lip blends with the roughened gluteal trochanter, and the medial lip runs to the lesser trochanter as the pectineal line.

    17:52 And we’ll see some important muscles attached here like pectineus.

    17:57 Inferiorly, the lateral and the medial lips, they separate to form the lateral and medial supracondylar lines. So distally, we can now clearly see a large femoral condyle. We can still make out the lateral epicondyle, and the medial epicondyle would be on this side. On the medial epicondyle, we can see an adductor tubercle which is an important attachment. But the femoral condyles, medial and lateral, they’re separated by this intercondylar fossa which we’ll soon appreciate, contain some cruciate ligaments and it articulates with the tibial condyles to form the knee joint. On the medial condyle, we can see we’ve got the adductor tubercle here, and that’s located on the superomedial medial aspect of that medial condyle. Now let’s have a look at the patella. We can see the patella, this anterior and posterior view. This is a right patella. It’s a large sesamoid bone and it develops intratendinously after birth. So it develops as an ossification of the tendon within the patellar tendon. It’s located anterior to the distal femur. We’ve got the patellar surface which we can see on the anterior surface of the femur. It’s triangular in shape.

    19:22 Its anterior surface is convex and has a broad superior base. It has a lateral and medial border, and these converge to form a pointed inferior edge known as the apex. Posteriorly, the articular surface is smooth and it’s divided by vertical ridge, which allows it to sit in the posterior in the patellar surface of the distal femur. Now let’s have a look at the tibia. Here, we can see we have anterior and the posterior surfaces of the tibia.

    19:55 We can see we’ve got a medial malleolus here. And on the posterior surface, we can still see the medial malleolus forming the ankle joints. And we have a fibular surface. This is the surface that you would see if you were standing where the fibula was. We’ll talk, first of all, about the tibial plateau, the proximal part of the tibia. The tibia is larger than the fibula and it’s mostly involved with weight bearing. The articulations occur superiorly between the femoral condyles on the tibial plateau which we can see here, and also, inferiorly with the talus. Here, I mentioned previously the medial malleolus. When the fibula is in place, we have two malleoli, medial and lateral, and they help to form the ankle joint.

    20:43 Proximally, we can see we have medial and lateral condyles of the tibia. Here we have a lateral condyle, and here we have a medial condyle. We can see this anteriorly, and we can also see this posteriorly. Here’s the medial condyle and here’s the lateral condyle.

    21:01 They are separated by the intercondylar eminence, this small little elevation of bone that sits on top of the tibial plateau and overlies flat surface. Lateral and medial intercondylar tubercles. So here, we can see some lateral and medial intercondylar tubercles forming this intercondylar eminence. As we’ll see, these are important. The shaft of the tibia is triangular in cross-section. The anterior border we find, we have the tibial tuberosity, and then we have this rather sharp anterior edge. The lateral, medial, and posterior surfaces form this triangular shape in cross-section. Here, we have the medial surface running down towards the medial malleolus, and here, we can see the lateral surface forming the sharp anterior border. If we will have the fibular view, then we can see we have this lateral surface here. The anterior edge is here, the anterior border. And then we can see the posterior surface where we have the nutrient foramen for the nutrient artery to pass into the tibia.

    22:10 We can also see on this posterior surface, we have the soleal line, and this is important as it’s the site of origin for the soleus muscle. We can see running along the shaft, we have the line for the interosseous border, and that is where the interosseous membrane connects the fibula to the tibia. Distally, we have the narrowing of the tibia before we have this medial expansion, which is the medial malleolus, and we have laterally, the fibular notch. And that allows for articulation with the fibula. In the fibular view, we can see we have this depression here. This fibular notch that has this, the fibula.

    22:56 Now let’s turn to the fibula. We can see the fibula has a head and neck, and then it has a thin shaft, and then dilates inferiorly or distally to form the lateral malleolus.

    23:08 Here we can see it’s slender. It’s positioned posterolaterally to the tibia, and it’s attached to the tibia via this interosseous membrane. Proximally, we have an enlarged head, and then we have a narrow neck. The head articulates with the articular surface on the lateral surface of the tibia. Here, we can see an articular facet which allows the head of the fibula to articulate with the tibia. As we go down the shaft, we see we have lateral and we have medial surfaces. We have an interosseous border where the membrane, the interosseous membrane will pass between the two, and we also have this posterior border which we can see here. Distally, we have a lateral expansion, and this is the lateral malleolus. Here we can see the malleolar fossa, and here we can see the lateral malleolus here.

    24:06 And this combined with the medial malleolus forms the articulation with the talus of the foot to form the ankle joint. Now let’s move on to the foot and look at the numerous bones that make up the foot, both the tarsals, the metatarsals, and the phalanges.

    24:26 We’ve got a whole series of pictures that show different views of the foot. We can see that we have tarsus, these seven bones that help to form the main body of the foot, and then we can see we have the metatarsus that contains these metatarsals, and then we can see we have the phalanges.

    24:47 But for the tarsus, we can have the calcaneus, the talus, navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiforms.

    24:55 Here, we can locate, if we look more superiorly, the talus, and this is going to allow articulation between the tibia and the fibula via the two malleoli. Then inferior to the talus underneath, we have the calcaneus. We can see the calcaneus is then going to articulate with the cuboid, we can see here. And directly in front of the talus, we can see we have the navicular.

    25:22 So we’ve got the talus here. We’ve got the navicular. And then we move lateral and we find the cuboid. We then have three cuneiforms that are positioned anterior to the navicular bone.

    25:35 We have the medial, the intermediate, and the lateral. So we have the talus, we have the calcaneus here, we have the navicular, the cuboid, and then three cuneiforms - medial, intermediate, and lateral. If we then look at the metatarsus, here we have five metatarsals.

    25:56 These connect to the phalanges, and toe 1 is the shortest metatarsus. So it’s not as long as the 2, 3, 4, and 5. So the phalanges had a similar arrangement as we had in the hand. So toe 1 has two phalanges, a proximal and a distal. And toe 2 to 5 has a proximal, a middle, and a distal. And this is repeated from toes 2, 3, 4, and 5.

    26:29 So let’s have a look at a bit more detail at these tarsal bones. Let’s start off with the calcaneus. We can see it’s the largest, the strongest of the tarsal bone, and articulates with the talus superiorly and the cuboid bone anteriorly. We can see it here. We can see if we have a plantar view here, a lateral view and a dorsal view. This is the calcaneus.

    26:56 Medially, if we look at this medial aspect of the calcaneus, we see it forms what’s known as the sustentaculum tali. And this helps to support the talus. It’s like a shelf and it helps to support the talus superiorly, the sustentaculum tali. We’ll later on appreciate some important tendons, blood vessels and nerves pass underneath the sustentaculum tali as they cross posteriorly to the medial malleolus to the enter the sole of the foot.

    27:27 We also have the calcaneal tuberosity. We can see that here, this large inferior bulge, the calcaneal tuberosity, and that’s an important attachment site for the calcaneal tendon.

    27:41 So now if we look at the talus, then that sits superior to the calcaneus, and we have a head, we have a neck, and we have a body. So we can see the neck of the talus here in this lateral view, and if we move on to the medial view, we see most anteriorly, we have the head, then we have the neck, and then we can see we have posteriorly the body.

    28:07 We can see how it’s passing down and attaching to the calcaneus in line with the sustentaculum tali.

    28:14 And here, we can see the talus. The trochlear surface which we can see here, so we have the trochlear surface similar to the trochlear that we have in the upper limb, allows for articulation with the two malleoli coming from the tibia and the fibula.

    28:31 And we’ll appreciate that this is wedge shaped allowing for strengthening of the ankle joint during various movements. Now let’s turn to the navicular. This is a flattened boat shaped bone. And it is located between the talus posteriorly, and the three cuneiforms anteriorly. We can see it here clearly in this dorsal view. On the lateral view, we can see it’s lying medial to the cubiod bone, and on this medial view, we can see it’s running against the medial surface of the foot. On the inferior surface of the navicular, we see a medially orientated tuberosity, and these were important for muscle attachments.

    29:15 If we then look at the cuboid bone, we can see the cuboid is located in between the calcaneus, and the fourth and fifth metatarsals. Medially, we would have the lateral cuneiform bone.

    29:30 So here we can see the cuboid. The cuboid itself has a tuberosity which we can again see on the plantar view, and we also see it has a groove for the fibularis longus tendon.

    29:43 We’d appreciate that when we look at the fibula muscles in a later lecture. If we now move to the cuneiforms, now these forms a row of bones that is directly anterior to the navicular. And we have from medial to lateral, we have a medial, intermediate, and a lateral cuneiform. We can see the three here in this dorsal view, and we can see the three here in this plantar view. All of these three bones articulate with the navicular posteriorly and the metatarsals anteriorly. So now let’s talk about those metatarsals. We have five metatarsals, and these run forward to connect to the phalanges of the digits. Toe 1 has the shortest metatarsal, and we can see that here. It’s very large, it’s very substantial, it’s made up of a base, it’s made up of a shaft, and it’s made up of a head.

    30:41 So we have this very broad large first metatarsal, but it’s also the shortest. If we look at metatarsals 2, 3, 4, and 5, we see they have a base, a shaft, and a head, but these are much thinner. We can then see just like the digits in the hand, digit 1 has two phalanges, a proximal and a distal. So we can see the proximal and distal phalanges of the first digit, the toe. And then digits 2, 3, 4, and 5 have both proximal, have all proximal, middle, and distal phalanges. Now let’s look at some of the movements that we have occurring at the lower limb. Here we can see movements that were occurring at the hip joints.

    31:31 We have flexion and we have extension. We can see the hip joint being flexed in this direction, and then being extended as it’s returned to the standing position, and then hyperextended backwards in this direction. We can see we have abduction and adduction possible.

    31:50 We have abduction, the leg is moved away from the midline, and we have adduction, we can see it’s brought towards the midline. And it’s actually possible of going across the midline and across the other standing leg. Here we can we have lateral and medial rotation occurring where the leg is turned inwards towards the body, lateral rotation, and it’s also turned outwards away from the body medial rotation.

    32:17 We can see at the knee joint, we can continue to have flexion and extension where we see the knee is fully extended. Here, we can see it goes straight on from the thigh, and we can see it’s flexed when the heel is brought towards the posterior surface of the thigh.

    32:32 Again, we can see we have medial and lateral rotation of the knee where the foot is turned either inwards or is turned outwards, medial and lateral rotation. If we look at the ankle joints, we can see we have dorsiflexion where your heel is on the floor and your toes are lifted upwards. And we have plantar flexion where your heel is lifted upwards and your forefoot, your toes, are depressed onto the floor. We can see we have inversion and eversion.

    33:02 This is again occurring at the ankle joints. With inversion, the big toe, your number 1 toe is lifted up and your little toe, digit 5, is remaining on the floor. And conversely with eversion, you have your great toe, number 1, remaining on the floor, whereas, your little toe, digit number 5, is lifted up inversion and eversion. If we then look at the toes, you’ll see because we have the interosseous muscles which we’ll later on describe, that the toes is possible to abduct and adduct these individual digits. Along with this movement, there’s also a flexion and extension so you can dorsiflex and you can plantarflex your digits.

    33:47 So in this lecture, we’ve looked at the surface anatomy of the lower limb, the inferior appendicular skeleton, we've looked at the gluteal, thigh, leg, and foot regions.

    33:58 And then we’ve looked at the osteology of the lower limb. We’ve looked at the gluteal region where we had the ischium, the pubis, and the ilium of the hip bone. We looked at the thigh with the femur, the leg and the tibia, fibula. And then the foot looking at the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges, and looking at some bony landmarks on these bones.

    34:17 And then to finish, we briefly looked at the movement of the lower limb.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Bones and Surface Anatomy of Lower Limb by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Lower Limb Anatomy. It contains the following chapters:

    • Surface Anatomy and Osteology
    • Hip Bone
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Foot
    • Movement of Lower Limb

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Sacrotuberous and sacrospinous
    2. Iliofemoral and ischiofemoral
    3. Iliofemoral and pubofemoral
    4. Sacrotuberous and ischiotuberous
    1. Patella
    2. Pubis
    3. Ilium
    4. Calcaneum
    1. 7
    2. 5
    3. 6
    4. 8
    1. Medial surface
    2. Anterior surface
    3. Posterior surface
    4. Lateral surface

    Author of lecture Bones and Surface Anatomy of Lower Limb

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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    Can't see diagrams. Awful.
    By WARREN W. on 25. February 2017 for Bones and Surface Anatomy of Lower Limb

    Can't see diagrams. Awful. I will be happy to amend rating once this issue is fixed.

    it was very helpful..thanks …
    By farrukh f. on 08. May 2016 for Bones and Surface Anatomy of Lower Limb

    it was very helpful..thanks for your help Dr. James!!

    Excellent description …
    By iutzi o. on 05. May 2016 for Bones and Surface Anatomy of Lower Limb

    Excellent description of the anatomy of the lower limbs!.. I loved the explanation of the movements animated at the end.. those are one of the most difficult aspects to evaluate in clinics to a patient (the normal ranges of movement) thank you very much for making it SO SIMPLE !..