Anatomy of the Shoulder

by James Pickering, PhD

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    In this lecture, we’re going to look at the shoulder region specifically the axio-appendicular and the scapulohumeral muscles. So we are going to look at the shoulder joint and its range of movement and specifically have the muscles enable the shoulder to move, the anterior and posterior axio-appendicular muscles. We then look at the scapulohumeral muscles and how some of these form the rotator cuff coming from the scapula to the humerus. We'll then look at the functional anatomy of these with their origin, insertion and the movements that they can allow the shoulder to perform. So the anterior axio-appendicular muscles. What do I mean by axio-appendicular muscles? Well these are muscles that run from the axial skeleton to the appendicular skeleton. So they run from the axial skeleton, the sternum, the ribs, the vertebral column to the appendicular skeleton which in this case is the upper limb, the superior appendicular skeleton, the clavicle, the scapula, the humerus. And here we can see the anterior muscles we have a whole series of them. We have pectoralis major, we can see here. We have pectoralis minor, we can see here. We have got subclavius, we can see here and also we have got serratus anterior. We will come back to that later on. What we can see is the pectoralis major muscle has a number of heads, really it has got two heads. It has got clavicular head where its coming from the clavicle. But the axio- appendicular parts of it, is where it's coming from the sternum and the costal margins of the ribs. We can see this muscle, this fan shape muscle, is running down towards the shaft of the humerus and we will see where it attaches on the shaft of the humerus just within the intertubercular sulcus....

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Anatomy of the Shoulder by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Upper Limb Anatomy. It contains the following chapters:

    • Anterior axio-appendicular muscles
    • Posterior axio-appendicular muscles
    • Scapulohumeral muscles

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Trapezius only attaches to the scapula and the vertebral column
    2. Rhomboid minor is anatomically located superior to rhomboid major
    3. Latissimus dorsi attaches to the intertubercular (bicipital) groove of the humerus
    4. Levator scapulae attaches to the superior border of the scapula
    5. Rhomboid major and minor attach to the medial border of the scapula
    1. Protraction of the scapula is achieved by serratus anterior and the middle fibres of trapezius
    2. Elevation of the scapula is achieved by levator scapula and the superior fibres of trapezius
    3. Depression of the scapula is achieved by the inferior fibres of trapezius
    4. Retraction of the scapula is achieved by the middle fibres of trapezius and the rhomboids
    5. Lateral rotation of the scapula is achieved by both the superior and inferior fibres of trapezius
    1. Latissimus dorsi
    2. a. Teres minor
    3. Supraspinatus
    4. Infraspinatus
    5. Subscapularis
    1. Long head of the biceps
    2. Long head of the triceps
    3. Inferior margin of the teres minor
    4. Surgical neck of the humerus
    5. Superior margin of the teres major
    1. Axillary
    2. Long thoracic
    3. Radial
    4. Nerve to subclavius
    5. Musculocutaneous
    1. The deltoid muscle is innervated by the accessory nerve
    2. Its principle movement is abduction of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint
    3. Its anterior fibres are involved in flexion of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint
    4. Its posterior fibres are involved in extension of the humerus at the glenohumeral joint
    5. The deltoid tuberosity is located on the lateral aspect of the proximal third of the humerus
    1. Serratus anterior is involved in retraction of the scapula
    2. Pectoralis major is involved in adduction, flexion and medial rotation of the humerus
    3. Pectoralis minor is innervated by the medial pectoral nerve
    4. Pectoralis major has two sites of attachment on the rib cage
    5. Serratus anterior is innervated by the long thoracic nerve

    Author of lecture Anatomy of the Shoulder

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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