Bacterial Diseases: Staphylococcus & Streptococcus

by Vincent Racaniello, PhD

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    Hello and welcome to Bacterial Infections. Today we're going to talk about Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and when you listen to this lecture, you'll be able to know the structure and virulence factors produced by the staphylococci and the streptococci. You will be familiar with the pathogenesis and the epidemiology of diseases associated with staphylococci and streptococci. You'll know which drugs can be used to treat staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, and you will become acquainted with the available streptococcal vaccines. Let's dive into staphylococci first. These are causative agents of abscesses and toxin-mediated diseases. Here we have a photograph of staphylococcus aureus. These are gram-positive cocci and they're often called grape-like clusters, so if they look like grapes to you, purplish, so that's the morphological appearance of staphylococci. Staphylococci colonized the nose and other mucous membranes in the skin of 30 to 40% of humans. 30 to 40% of people are carrying these bacteria as part of their normal flora, not everyone, alright, but some of them do, in your nose, mucous membranes, even on your skin. These bacteria nevertheless, under some situations, can cause a variety of diseases. They include focal abscesses and what we mean by that is an abscess in a very specific place, like on the skin, where it would be a boil, many of you may have had boils before, focal infections, a very raised pus filled lesion, we will see some of these in a moment, but these can also occur inside of you, not just on your skin, for example in your lungs, bones, other organs, kidneys and heart. A general feature of the staphylococci is that they secrete potent exotoxins. We talked about exotoxins in a previous lecture on bacteria, these are proteins that are produced and elaborated from the bacteria that have...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Bacterial Diseases: Staphylococcus & Streptococcus by Vincent Racaniello, PhD is from the course Bacteria. It contains the following chapters:

    • Introduction Staphylococci
    • Staphylococci: Abscesses
    • Staphylococcal Toxin Diseases
    • Streptococci
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Staphylococcus & Streptococcus: Learning Outcomes

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. These type of bacteria make a penicillin binding protein 2a, which supports penicillin resistance.
    2. These type of bacteria can be treated with higher doses of antibiotics if paired with exfoliative toxin A.
    3. The beta-lactamases in MRSA encode for better reception of the penicillin type antibiotic.
    4. MRSA stands for 'Methicillin-Resistant Strep Aureus'
    5. It is not a very serious infection.
    1. Rheumatic Fever
    2. Scalded Skin Syndrome
    3. Toxic Shock Syndrome
    4. An increase in the TSST-1 toxin.
    5. Food poisioning
    1. They cannot produce the necessary proteases to digest proteins in the host which would normally restrict the spread of the bacteria.
    2. They produce an enzyme that converts plasminogen to plasmin
    3. They have multiple ways to avoid destruction by macrophage-like cells.
    4. They produce two different kinds of streptolysins.
    5. They move systemically through the body.
    1. Permanent hoarseness
    2. Non-suppurative sequelae
    3. Acute rheumatic fever
    4. Inflammation of heart tissue
    5. Polyarthritis
    1. If you are an adult and you were never immunized, you should get the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
    2. There is one vaccine that can be given to everyone to prevent contracting pneumococcal pneumonia.
    3. There are four different vaccines for children, adults, the elderly, and the immunocompromised, each catering to the particular strains most likely to infect the subgroup.
    4. The vaccines protect against all known strains of pneumococcal pneumoniae.
    5. If the vaccine is given to a child, they still need to receive a booster as an adult to remain protected.
    1. Both streptococci and staphylococci can be spread by asymptomatic carriers.
    2. Both streptococci and staphylococci can result in Rheumatic Fever.
    3. They both can cause Toxic Shock Syndrome.
    4. Both streptococci and staphylococci have gram-negative, grape-like structures.
    5. They both can be easily treated with antibiotics.

    Author of lecture Bacterial Diseases: Staphylococcus & Streptococcus

     Vincent Racaniello, PhD

    Vincent Racaniello, PhD

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