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Achalasia

Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility Motility The motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal Motility disorder that develops from the degeneration of the myenteric plexus Myenteric plexus One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling. This condition results in impaired lower esophageal sphincter Lower Esophageal Sphincter Esophagus: Anatomy relaxation and absence of normal esophageal peristalsis Peristalsis A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction. Gastrointestinal Motility. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship typically present with dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming "stuck." Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids and liquids along with regurgitation Regurgitation Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Diagnosis is established by high-resolution manometry. To rule out malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax as a cause of achalasia, upper endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is performed. Barium swallow Barium Swallow Imaging of the Intestines study helps evaluate the esophageal morphology. Management options include pneumatic balloon dilation, surgical myotomy, and botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin Toxic proteins produced from the species Clostridium botulinum. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon endocytosis into presynaptic nerve endings. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific snare proteins which are essential for secretion of acetylcholine by synaptic vesicles. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular paralysis. Botulism injection. Choice of treatment is dependent on the type of achalasia and surgical risk. Medications are available for those who fail initial intervention; however, they provide the least benefit.

Last updated: 25 Aug, 2021

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Overview

Definition

  • Primary esophageal motility Motility The motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal Motility disorder due to degeneration of the myenteric plexus Myenteric plexus One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The myenteric (Auerbach’s) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling  
  • Condition is characterized by:

Anatomy and physiology

  • Esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy:
    • Made up of an outer longitudinal muscle layer and an inner circular muscle layer 
    • Circular muscle fibers: allow peristalsis Peristalsis A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction. Gastrointestinal Motility
    • Upper ⅓ of esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy: predominantly skeletal muscles Skeletal muscles A subtype of striated muscle, attached by tendons to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles. Muscle Tissue: Histology
    • Lower ⅔ of esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy: Smooth muscles Smooth muscles Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. Muscle Tissue: Histology become more dominant from the middle to the distal esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy.
  • Myenteric plexus Myenteric plexus One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The myenteric (Auerbach’s) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling (Auerbach’s plexus):
    • Group of ganglia between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers
    • Part of the enteric nervous system Nervous system The nervous system is a small and complex system that consists of an intricate network of neural cells (or neurons) and even more glial cells (for support and insulation). It is divided according to its anatomical components as well as its functional characteristics. The brain and spinal cord are referred to as the central nervous system, and the branches of nerves from these structures are referred to as the peripheral nervous system. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification 
    • Function: controls the peristalsis Peristalsis A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction. Gastrointestinal Motility of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Type of neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology or ganglion cells Ganglion Cells The Visual Pathway and Related Disorders in the myenteric plexus Myenteric plexus One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The myenteric (Auerbach’s) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. Gastrointestinal Neural and Hormonal Signaling:
    • Excitatory: secrete acetylcholine Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS → muscle contraction
    • Inhibitory: secrete nitrous oxide Nitrous oxide Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. Inhaled Anesthetics and vasoactive peptide → muscle relaxation

Epidemiology

  • Incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 12 cases per 100,000 individuals
  • Prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency: 10 cases per 100,000 individuals
  • Seen mostly in adults between 25 and 60 years of age
  • Men and women are equally affected.

Etiology

  • Primary: idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis
  • Secondary (also called pseudo-achalasia): 
    • Caused by diseases that lead to esophageal abnormalities, similar to primary achalasia
    • Malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax (esophageal, gastric, or other extraesophageal cancers) by mass Mass Three-dimensional lesion that occupies a space within the breast Imaging of the Breast effect or as part of paraneoplastic syndrome
    • Chagas disease Chagas disease Infection with the protozoan parasite trypanosoma cruzi, a form of trypanosomiasis endemic in central and south america. It is named after the brazilian physician carlos chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of parasympathetic ganglia; chagas cardiomyopathy; and dysfunction of the esophagus or colon. Trypanosoma cruzi/Chagas disease
      • Infection with a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas disease is an infection caused by the American trypanosome Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasitic protozoan is transmitted in the feces of reduviid bugs in South and Central America. Acute infection may present with inflammation at the inoculation site (chagoma), fever, and lymphadenopathy. Untreated, chronic infection can progress to severe complications. Trypanosoma cruzi/Chagas disease
      • Commonly found in South and Central America
    • Infiltrative disorders: amyloidosis Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a disease caused by abnormal extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of various misfolded low-molecular-weight protein subunits. These proteins are frequently byproducts of other pathological processes (e.g., multiple myeloma). Amyloidosis, sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease that causes noncaseating granulomas. The exact etiology is unknown. Sarcoidosis usually affects the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes, but it can also affect almost every system in the body, including the skin, heart, and eyes, most commonly. Sarcoidosis 
    • Genetic diseases: neurofibromatosis, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b Similar to MEN2a, it is also caused by mutations of the MEN2 gene, also known as the ret proto-oncogene. Its clinical symptoms include medullary carcinoma of thyroid gland and pheochromocytoma of adrenal medulla (50%). Unlike MEN2a, MEN2b does not involve parathyroid neoplasms. It can be distinguished from MEN2a by its neural abnormalities such as mucosal neuromas on eyelids; lip; and tongue, and ganglioneuromatosis of gastrointestinal tract leading to megacolon. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Fabry’s disease
    • Others: eosinophilic esophagitis Eosinophilic esophagitis Chronic esophagitis characterized by esophageal mucosal eosinophilia. It is diagnosed when an increase in eosinophils are present over the entire esophagus. The reflux symptoms fail to respond to proton pump inhibitors treatment, unlike in gastroesophageal reflux disease. The symptoms are associated with ige-mediated hypersensitivity to food or inhalant allergens. Esophagitis, juvenile Sjögren’s syndrome, chronic idiopathic Idiopathic Dermatomyositis intestinal pseudo-obstruction Intestinal pseudo-obstruction A type of ileus, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the intestines. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles or the nervous system. Large Bowel Obstruction

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Pathophysiology

Pathologic process

  • Degeneration of Auerbach’s plexus, where there is selective loss of inhibitory ganglion cells Ganglion Cells The Visual Pathway and Related Disorders in the distal esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy 
  • Unopposed excitatory activity → failure of smooth muscle relaxation at LES → increase in LES pressure → progressive loss of peristaltic function

Proposed factors that contribute to the pathogenesis

  • Genetic predisposition
    • Achalasia is associated with genetic mutation Mutation Genetic mutations are errors in DNA that can cause protein misfolding and dysfunction. There are various types of mutations, including chromosomal, point, frameshift, and expansion mutations. Types of Mutations (Allgrove’s syndrome).
    • Familial cases point to a possible inherited pattern.
  • Viral infection
    • Varicella zoster, measles Measles Measles (also known as rubeola) is caused by a single-stranded, linear, negative-sense RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. It is highly contagious and spreads by respiratory droplets or direct-contact transmission from an infected person. Typically a disease of childhood, measles classically starts with cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis, followed by a maculopapular rash. Measles Virus, and Herpes simplex Herpes Simplex A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. Congenital TORCH Infections ( type 1 Type 1 Spinal Muscular Atrophy) virus Virus Viruses are infectious, obligate intracellular parasites composed of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein capsid. Viruses can be either naked (non-enveloped) or enveloped. The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. Virology antibodies Antibodies Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells that act in immune responses by recognizing and binding particular antigens. The various Ig classes are IgG (the most abundant), IgM, IgE, IgD, and IgA, which differ in their biologic features, structure, target specificity, and distribution. Immunoglobulins: Types and Functions have been noted in affected patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship
    • A causal relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship, however, has not been established.
  • Inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body’s defense against pathogenic organisms. Inflammation is also seen as a response to tissue injury in the process of wound healing. The 5 cardinal signs of inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Inflammation and autoimmune process
    • Autoantibodies Autoantibodies Antibodies that react with self-antigens (autoantigens) of the organism that produced them. Blotting Techniques to enteric neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology have been found in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship with achalasia.
    • In affected esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy: Inflammatory T-cell infiltrates surround the inhibitory neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology, with relative sparing of the excitatory neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology.

Clinical Presentation and Complications

Clinical presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor

  • Insidious onset
  • Dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids and liquids 
  • Regurgitation Regurgitation Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) of bland undigested food 
  • Difficulty belching
  • Heartburn Heartburn Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Nocturnal cough
  • Hiccups
  • Weight loss Weight loss Decrease in existing body weight. Bariatric Surgery

Complications

Grade iv megaesophagus

Image of megaesophagus Megaesophagus Trypanosoma cruzi/Chagas disease (loss of esophageal motility Motility The motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal Motility and diffuse esophageal dilation)
A: Posteroanterior X-ray X-ray Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard x-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength x-rays. Soft x-rays or grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the x-ray spectrum overlaps the gamma rays wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and x-rays is based on their radiation source. Pulmonary Function Tests showing widening of the superior mediastinum Superior mediastinum Mediastinum and Great Vessels: Anatomy (arrows)
B: Barium swallow Barium Swallow Imaging of the Intestines study demonstrating a dilated and tortuous esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy (arrowheads)

Image: “Grade IV megaesophagus Megaesophagus Trypanosoma cruzi/Chagas disease” by US National Library of Medicine. License: CC BY 4.0

Diagnosis

Diagnostic approach

  • Achalasia suspected in:
    • Dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids and liquids
    • Heartburn Heartburn Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) unresponsive to proton pump inhibitor Proton pump inhibitor Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-exchanging ATPase. They are used as anti-ulcer agents and sometimes in place of histamine h2 antagonists for gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Upper endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is performed → suggestive findings or equivocal but with high suspicion → proceed with esophageal manometry:
    • If manometry is consistent with achalasia: Rule out malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax (endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration Needle aspiration Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis. Peritonsillar Abscess).
    • If with equivocal manometry findings: barium swallow Barium Swallow Imaging of the Intestines study
    • If with normal manometry: Achalasia is ruled out.

Esophageal manometry

  • Establishes the diagnosis of achalasia
  • High-resolution manometry (HRM) with esophageal pressure topography (EPT):
    • Gold standard test 
    • More sensors than conventional manometry
    • Pressure: represented by color (↑ intensity of color = ↑ pressure)
    • Demonstrates the following:
      • Resting pressure of the esophagogastric junction Esophagogastric junction The area covering the terminal portion of esophagus and the beginning of stomach at the cardiac orifice. Esophagus: Anatomy
      • Swallowing-triggered esophageal activity
    • Classifies the types of achalasia (which guide treatment):
      • Type I classic achalasia: 
        • Minimal contractility or 100% failed peristalsis Peristalsis A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction. Gastrointestinal Motility in the esophageal body 
        • Due to aganglionosis
      • Type II achalasia: 
        • Intermittent periods of pressurization 
        • Magnitude of aganglionosis is lower.
      • Type III spastic achalasia: 
  • Conventional manometry:
    • Findings:
      • Aperistalsis in lower ⅔ of esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy 
      • Incomplete LES relaxation after swallow
      • High LES resting pressure
Achalasia types

Types of achalasia

All types exhibit impaired esophagogastric junction Esophagogastric junction The area covering the terminal portion of esophagus and the beginning of stomach at the cardiac orifice. Esophagus: Anatomy relaxation.
Type I: On swallow, the upper esophageal sphincter Upper esophageal sphincter The structure at the pharyngoesophageal junction consisting chiefly of the cricopharyngeus muscle. It normally occludes the lumen of the esophagus, except during swallowing. Esophagus: Anatomy relaxed, but is followed by 100% failed contractions and no esophageal pressurization (absent peristalsis Peristalsis A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction. Gastrointestinal Motility).
Type II has panesophageal pressurization in at least 20% of swallows.
Type III is defined by the presence of preserved fragments of distal peristalsis Peristalsis A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction. Gastrointestinal Motility or premature Premature Childbirth before 37 weeks of pregnancy (259 days from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period, or 245 days after fertilization). Necrotizing Enterocolitis contractions for at least 20% of the swallows (spastic).

Image: “Achalasia types” by US National Library of Medicine. License: CC BY 4.0, edited by Lecturio.

Other diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests Diagnostic tests are important aspects in making a diagnosis. Some of the most important epidemiological values of diagnostic tests include sensitivity and specificity, false positives and false negatives, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and pre-test and post-test probabilities. Epidemiological Values of Diagnostic Tests

  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): 
    • Findings: 
      • Retained food in esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy
      • Increased resistance Resistance Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow. Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing to passage of the endoscope through the esophagogastric junction Esophagogastric junction The area covering the terminal portion of esophagus and the beginning of stomach at the cardiac orifice. Esophagus: Anatomy
    • Can have normal or equivocal results
    • Necessary to rule out malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax as the cause of achalasia
  • Barium swallow Barium Swallow Imaging of the Intestines study: 
    • Performed in equivocal manometric findings
    • Evaluates esophagogastric junction Esophagogastric junction The area covering the terminal portion of esophagus and the beginning of stomach at the cardiac orifice. Esophagus: Anatomy morphology
    • “Bird’s beak”: pathognomonic barium swallow Barium Swallow Imaging of the Intestines finding (dilated esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy due to lack of peristalsis Peristalsis A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction. Gastrointestinal Motility, which terminates in narrowing at LES)
  • Endoscopic ultrasound:
    • Evaluates esophageal wall thickness
    • Significant and asymmetric wall thickening: suspicious for malignancy Malignancy Hemothorax
  • EndoFLIP (functional lumen imaging probe Probe A device placed on the patient’s body to visualize a target Ultrasound (Sonography)):
    • FLIP catheter passes through esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy and displays diameter of esophageal segments.
    • Helps assess esophageal emptying by the distensibility of the esophagogastric junction Esophagogastric junction The area covering the terminal portion of esophagus and the beginning of stomach at the cardiac orifice. Esophagus: Anatomy
    • Achalasia: low distensibility

Management

Approach to management

  • The loss of ganglion cells Ganglion Cells The Visual Pathway and Related Disorders cannot be reversed.
  • Goal of intervention is to improve the passage of ingested material.
  • Among the types of achalasia:
    • Type II: has the best response to treatment options
    • Type III: the most difficult to manage

Management options

  • Pneumatic balloon dilation of LES
    • Circumferential stretching of the LES
    • Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship referred to surgery if no improvement after 3 consecutive dilations
    • Risk of esophageal perforation Perforation A pathological hole in an organ, blood vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force. Esophagitis
    • For type I or type II achalasia
  • Surgical myotomy
    • Lower esophageal sphincter Lower Esophageal Sphincter Esophagus: Anatomy muscle fibers are surgically cut to relieve pressure.
    • Heller myotomy (laparoscopic option)
    • Risk of esophageal and gastric perforation Perforation A pathological hole in an organ, blood vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force. Esophagitis
    • Risk of gastroesophageal reflux (fundoplication performed at the same time to reduce this risk)
  • Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM):
    • Longer myotomy
    • Procedure of choice for type III achalasia
    • Can result in severe gastroesophageal reflux
  • Botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin Toxic proteins produced from the species Clostridium botulinum. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon endocytosis into presynaptic nerve endings. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific snare proteins which are essential for secretion of acetylcholine by synaptic vesicles. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular paralysis. Botulism injection into LES
    • Botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin Toxic proteins produced from the species Clostridium botulinum. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon endocytosis into presynaptic nerve endings. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific snare proteins which are essential for secretion of acetylcholine by synaptic vesicles. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular paralysis. Botulism is injected to block the release Release Release of a virus from the host cell following virus assembly and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, exocytosis, or budding through the plasma membrane. Virology of acetylcholine Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Receptors and Neurotransmitters of the CNS from excitatory ganglions → ↓ LES tone
    • Good short-term results; requires retreatment within 612 months
    • Reserved for poor surgical candidates
  • Pharmacologic options:
    • Least benefit
    • Considered for poor surgical candidates and for those who fail botulinum injections
    • Mechanism of medications: Reduce LES pressure.
    • Medications: nitrates Nitrates Nitrates are a class of medications that cause systemic vasodilation (veins > arteries) by smooth muscle relaxation. Nitrates are primarily indicated for the treatment of angina, where preferential venodilation causes pooling of blood, decreased preload, and ultimately decreased myocardial O2 demand. Nitrates, calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes channel blockers

Differential Diagnosis

  • Esophageal spasm: also presents with dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids and liquids but is associated with sudden onset of chest pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways that is not exertion-related. There are 2 types of this condition: distal esophageal spasm and hypercontractile esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy. Manometry shows characteristic esophageal contractions with normal relaxation of the esophagogastric junction Esophagogastric junction The area covering the terminal portion of esophagus and the beginning of stomach at the cardiac orifice. Esophagus: Anatomy
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the stomach acid frequently flows back into the esophagus. This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of the esophagus, causing symptoms such as retrosternal burning pain (heartburn). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ( GERD GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the stomach acid frequently flows back into the esophagus. This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of the esophagus, causing symptoms such as retrosternal burning pain (heartburn). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)): symptoms of heartburn Heartburn Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and regurgitation Regurgitation Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) caused by the reflux of stomach Stomach The stomach is a muscular sac in the upper left portion of the abdomen that plays a critical role in digestion. The stomach develops from the foregut and connects the esophagus with the duodenum. Structurally, the stomach is C-shaped and forms a greater and lesser curvature and is divided grossly into regions: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. Stomach: Anatomy contents. Patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship usually complain of a burning epigastric pain Epigastric pain Mallory-Weiss Syndrome (Mallory-Weiss Tear) radiating up the chest, with a sour or metallic taste in the mouth. Gastroesophageal reflux disease Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the stomach acid frequently flows back into the esophagus. This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of the esophagus, causing symptoms such as retrosternal burning pain (heartburn). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is due to inappropriate relaxation of the LES. Proton pump Pump ACES and RUSH: Resuscitation Ultrasound Protocols inhibitors are used to control symptoms of GERD GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs when the stomach acid frequently flows back into the esophagus. This backwash (acid reflux) can irritate the lining of the esophagus, causing symptoms such as retrosternal burning pain (heartburn). Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).
  • Scleroderma Scleroderma Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is an autoimmune condition characterized by diffuse collagen deposition and fibrosis. The clinical presentation varies from limited skin involvement to diffuse involvement of internal organs. Scleroderma: also called systemic sclerosis Sclerosis A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve. Wilms Tumor, this condition presents with dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids and liquids at the onset, accompanied by findings of skin Skin The skin, also referred to as the integumentary system, is the largest organ of the body. The skin is primarily composed of the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (deep layer). The epidermis is primarily composed of keratinocytes that undergo rapid turnover, while the dermis contains dense layers of connective tissue. Skin: Structure and Functions thickening and hardening ( sclerosis Sclerosis A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve. Wilms Tumor) and specific serum autoantibodies Autoantibodies Antibodies that react with self-antigens (autoantigens) of the organism that produced them. Blotting Techniques. Lower esophageal sphincter Lower Esophageal Sphincter Esophagus: Anatomy is weak or incompetent in scleroderma Scleroderma Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is an autoimmune condition characterized by diffuse collagen deposition and fibrosis. The clinical presentation varies from limited skin involvement to diffuse involvement of internal organs. Scleroderma, so manometry shows low or absent LES pressure.
  • Esophageal stricture Stricture Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: narrowing of the esophagus Esophagus The esophagus is a muscular tube-shaped organ of around 25 centimeters in length that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The organ extends from approximately the 6th cervical vertebra to the 11th thoracic vertebra and can be divided grossly into 3 parts: the cervical part, the thoracic part, and the abdominal part. Esophagus: Anatomy that is frequently a sequelae of gastroesophageal reflux. This narrowing can also result from malignancies. Esophageal stricture Stricture Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis presents with dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids, progressing to liquids. Barium swallow Barium Swallow Imaging of the Intestines study shows a narrowed luminal diameter. Upper endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is performed for dual purposes, as it aids AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS in diagnosis through visualization and biopsy Biopsy Removal and pathologic examination of specimens from the living body. Ewing Sarcoma and also allows dilation when necessary for treatment. 
  • Esophageal ring and web: thin structures that produce partial occlusion of the esophageal lumen. Plummer-Vinson syndrome Plummer-Vinson syndrome A syndrome of dysphagia with iron-deficiency anemia that is due to congenital anomalies in the esophagus (such as cervical esophageal webs). It is known as patterson-kelly syndrome in the united kingdom. Iron Deficiency Anemia consists of iron Iron A metallic element with atomic symbol fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55. 85. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobins; cytochromes; and iron-binding proteins. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of oxygen. Trace Elements deficiency anemia Anemia Anemia is a condition in which individuals have low Hb levels, which can arise from various causes. Anemia is accompanied by a reduced number of RBCs and may manifest with fatigue, shortness of breath, pallor, and weakness. Subtypes are classified by the size of RBCs, chronicity, and etiology. Anemia: Overview and Types, dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia, and a cervical esophageal web. Presentation Presentation The position or orientation of the fetus at near term or during obstetric labor, determined by its relation to the spine of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the neck. Normal and Abnormal Labor includes dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids. Schatzki’s ring, the most common type of esophageal ring, is also associated with intermittent dysphagia Dysphagia Dysphagia is the subjective sensation of difficulty swallowing. Symptoms can range from a complete inability to swallow, to the sensation of solids or liquids becoming “stuck.” Dysphagia is classified as either oropharyngeal or esophageal, with esophageal dysphagia having 2 sub-types: functional and mechanical. Dysphagia to solids. Diagnosis is by barium swallow Barium Swallow Imaging of the Intestines study and upper endoscopy Endoscopy Procedures of applying endoscopes for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. Transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

References

  1. Allaix, M., Patti, M., Roy, P. (2017) Achalasia. Medscape. Retrieved 2 Oct 2020, from https://reference.medscape.com/article/169974-overview#a1
  2. Ates, F., Vaezi, M. (2015) The Pathogenesis and Management of Achalasia: Current Status and Future Directions. Gut Liver. 9(4): 449–463. doi: 10.5009/gnl14446
  3. Desai, J., Moustarah, F. (2020). Esophageal Stricture. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542209/
  4. Furuzawa-Carballeda, J. et al. (2016). New insights into the pathophysiology of achalasia and implications for future treatment. World J Gastroenterol. 22(35):7892-7907. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i35.7892
  5. O’Neill, O., Johnston, B., Coleman, H. (2013). Achalasia: A review of clinical diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and outcomes. World Journal of Gastroenterology 19(35):5806-5812. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3793135/
  6. Rogers, A., Rogers, B., Gyawali, P. (2020) Pathophysiology of achalasia. Annals of Esophagus 3. https://doi.org/10.21037/AOE-2019-ACH-07
  7. Shahrestani, J., Das, J. (2020). Neuroanatomy, Auerbach Plexus. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551559/
  8. Spechler, S., Talley, N., Robson, K. (2020) Achalasia: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. UpToDate. Retrieved 1 Oct 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/achalasia-pathogenesis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis

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