Lectures

Respiratory Failures: Hypoxemia & Hypercapnia

by Carlo Raj, MD
(1)

Questions about the lecture
My Notes
  • Required.
Save Cancel
    Learning Material 2
    • PDF
      Slides Respiratory Failure RespiratoryPathology.pdf
    • PDF
      Download Lecture Overview
    Report mistake
    Transcript
    It is time for us to put everything together. Up until this point, we have clearly elucidated the various modes of techniques and tests. There will be few more, as we walk through, but we are now getting into the heart of respiratory pathology. Respiratory failure, in general, what is it? You're focusing upon oxygen and the lack of your body being able to properly ventilate. Now, we have done this prior and the way that we’ll continue with timeline becomes very important for us. If it’s acute, well, this is occurring within hours, which means that you are not able to properly ventilate your lung and nor can you properly get oxygen into your arterial side. And by definition, when we have respiratory failure, as I said, your focus should be the inability to properly oxygenate your arterial blood. If it’s chronic, occurs over months to years. You’re thinking about chronic diseases and ultimately, please understand that your bicarb will also very much be affected. By that, we mean the following. If you have chronic issues, then at some point, understand that the body might actually become accustomed. Remember from physiology. To increase levels of carbon dioxide in a chronic time frame. And so, therefore, clinically, at times, what you’ll do is to then figure out that your patient might have a chronic disease by looking at an increase in serum bicarb because the carbon dioxide is elevated chronically for long periods of time. Hence, you know that one of the things that you avoid doing in a patient who has now become accustomed to low oxygen tension and if you were to measure this and then give the patient oxygen, then please understand that the patient is going to then further depress respiration. And so, therefore, this then...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Respiratory Failures: Hypoxemia & Hypercapnia by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Respiratory Failures. It contains the following chapters:

    • Respiratory Failure
    • Acute Hypoxemic
    • Acute Hypercapnic
    • Treatment
    • Medical Ventilation

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. PO2 < 60 PCO2 > 45
    2. PO2>60 PCO2 <45
    3. PO2>70 PCO2<35
    4. PO2<70 PCO2>35
    5. PO2 >65 PCO2>45
    1. Serum HCO3 levels
    2. PCO2 levels
    3. PO2 levels
    4. Venous CO2 levels
    5. Venous O2 levels
    1. Loss of hypoxic drive
    2. Increase in PO2
    3. Decrease in the PCO2
    4. Treatment of respiratory failure
    5. Increase in the venous PCO2
    1. Acute lung injury
    2. Asthma
    3. Pulmonary embolism
    4. Acute exacerbation of COPD
    5. Pneumonia
    1. High altitude sickness
    2. Sea sickness
    3. Mechanical ventilation
    4. COPD
    5. Asthma
    1. Respiratory failure due to myasthenia gravis
    2. V/Q mismatch
    3. Pulmonary shunt
    4. Impaired diffusion
    5. Hypoventilation
    1. Atelectasis of lung
    2. Emphysema
    3. Pneumonia
    4. Asthma
    5. Pulmonary embolism
    1. Pituitary tumor
    2. Drugs decreasing respiratory drive
    3. Herniation of the brain
    4. Stroke
    5. Multiple sclerosis
    1. Multiple sclerosis
    2. Myasthenia gravis
    3. Muscular dystrophy
    4. Polymyositis
    5. Botulism
    1. Hyaline membrane disease
    2. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome
    3. Kyphoscoliosis
    4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    5. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
    1. Chronic hypoventilation leads the chemoreceptors to become unresponsive over many years, leading to consumption of carbon dioxide for the formation of HCO3.
    2. Chronic hypoventilation leads the chemoreceptors to become stimulated over many years, leading to consumption of carbon dioxide for the formation of HCO3
    3. Chronic hypoventilation leads baroreceptors to become unresponsive over long periods leading to consumption of carbon dioxide for the formation of HCO3
    4. Chronic hypoventilation leads baroreceptors to become stimulated over long periods leading to consumption of carbon dioxide for the formation of HCO3
    5. Chronic hypoventilation causes no change in the carbon dioxide levels but secretion of HCO3 occurs.
    1. Hypercapnic respiratory failure
    2. Hypoxemic respiratory failure
    3. Loss of hypoxic drive
    4. Respiratory centre depression
    5. Inability of the muscle to relax
    1. Increased
    2. Decreased
    3. Remains the same
    4. Initially increased and then decreased
    5. Initially decreased and then increased
    1. Emphysema
    2. Asthma
    3. Pulmonary embolism
    4. Interstitial lung disease
    5. Lung cancer
    1. Pulmonary embolism
    2. Emphysema
    3. Asthma
    4. Lung cancer
    5. Tuberculosis
    1. Dead space
    2. Tidal volume
    3. Frequency of respiration
    4. Alveolar ventilation
    5. Tidal volume - dead space
    1. Alveolar ventilation= ( tidal volume - dead space) × frequency of respiration
    2. Alveolar ventilation= ( tidal volume + dead space) × frequency of respiration
    3. Alveolar ventilation=( dead space - tidal volume) × frequency of respiration
    4. Alveolar ventilation=( frequency of respiration- dead space) × tidal volume
    5. Alveolar ventilation=( tidal volume -frequency of respiration) × dead space
    1. Rapid deep breathing
    2. Rapid shallow breathing
    3. Slow shallow breathing
    4. Slow deep breathing
    5. Normal breathing
    1. Respiratory alkalosis
    2. Respiratory acidosis
    3. Metabolic alkalosis
    4. Metabolic acidosis
    5. Initially, respiratory acidosis further converting to respiratory alkalosis
    1. Rapid shallow breathing
    2. Rapid deep breathing
    3. Slow shallow breathing
    4. Slow deep breathing
    5. Normal breathing
    1. Increase as there is less alveolar ventilation for exchange
    2. Decreased as there is less alveolar ventilation for exchange
    3. Remains unchanged
    4. Increase initially and eventually decreases
    5. Decreases initially and eventually increases
    1. Increased
    2. Decreased
    3. Remains the same
    4. Initially increased and then decreased
    5. Initially decreased and then increased
    1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    2. Hypoxic respiratory failure
    3. Hyperbaric ventilatory failure
    4. Shock
    5. Airway protection
    1. Sleep apnea
    2. Hypoxic respiratory failure
    3. Hypercarbic Respiratory Failure
    4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    5. Immunocompromised patients with respiratory difficulties
    1. Keeps the alveoli open even at end of expiration
    2. Keeps the alveoli closed at the end of expiration
    3. Keeps the alveoli in a state of immobility
    4. Keeps the alveoli closed at the end of inspiration
    5. Keeps the bronchioles open at the end of expiration
    1. Lung infection
    2. Obstruction to the flow of pulmonary capillary
    3. Pneumothorax
    4. Barotrauma
    5. Interstitial emphysema

    Author of lecture Respiratory Failures: Hypoxemia & Hypercapnia

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


    Customer reviews

    (1)
    5,0 of 5 stars
    5 Stars
    5
    4 Stars
    0
    3 Stars
    0
    2 Stars
    0
    1  Star
    0