During routine or emergencies, the upper limbs must be thoroughly examined. Being the primary means of interaction with the external environment, they constantly endure trauma, as well as overuse, which results in a myriad of conditions (e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome, medial or lateral epicondylitis, rotator cuff injury). Other notable conditions include those associated with aging and rheumatoid pathology (e.g., osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis). The upper limbs can also reflect systemic conditions, such as the edema seen in thoracic outlet syndrome. To better understand these conditions, the student must be knowledgeable of the anatomy of the upper extremity, particularly main arterial and venous vessels, as well as commonly injured joints (e.g., shoulder, wrist). Careful examination of the upper limb can provide the physician valuable findings about current complaints or underlying pathologies.