A complete physical examination of a woman must include a detailed examination of the breasts, which needs to be organized and systematic, following a pattern (e.g., by quadrants). For maximal comprehension, the student needs to be familiarized with the embryological origin of the breasts, the anatomy of the mammary glands, and the physiology of lactation and its relationship to the menstrual cycle. Additionally, knowledge of the most common pathologies of the breast is required. Breast discomfort or lumps are very common complaints. A competent clinician must be able to tell the difference, via the physical examination, between what requires further evaluation and surveillance, and what can be dismissed as benign. The physical examination is the first screening test for breast cancer.