Metabolism and Regulation

by Kevin Ahern, PhD

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    In order to be alive, cells must generate energy and use that energy to make molecules. That's the function of what we call metabolism. In this presentation I will go through the processes of catabolism and anabolism, I'll deal with energy considerations as they regard biochemical reactions and finally talk about regulation and mechanisms. First I need to define some terms. Catabolism is a process whereby larger molecules that the cell takes in, are broken down into smaller components. You can see on the screen for example that proteins, polysaccharides and fats are broken respectively into amino acids, sugars and fatty acids. These precursors or these building blocks that were used to make the larger molecules are in turn broken down into smaller components and though there are a variety of these components that are made, a common one that they all converge to is acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can be oxidized readily in the citric acid cycle to generate ATP energy. The process of oxidation of course generates electrons and those electrons in the cell must be dealt with. The electrons in cells are placed on electron carriers, either NAD+ or FAD typically, NAD+ is shown here. When NAD+ accepts electrons and a proton, it becomes NADH as you can see on the presentation. The process of anabolism is essentially the opposite of catabolism, that is, smaller molecules are built into precursors and those precursors are made into the building blocks of the individual larger components. So we can see here for example that the precursors are made into amino acids, sugars and fatty acids to make respectively, proteins, polysaccharides and fats. Because this process requires energy, ATP input is necessary and the ATP generated by the catabolic processes is used to make the molecules here in the anabolic processes. Anabolism...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Metabolism and Regulation by Kevin Ahern, PhD is from the course Biochemistry: Basics. It contains the following chapters:

    • Catabolism & Anabolism
    • Methabolic Pathways
    • Regulation of Enzymatic Activity
    • Allosterism
    • Covalent Modification
    • Gene Expression

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. ...larger molecules are broken to smaller ones.
    2. ...energy is required.
    3. ...the process is usually non-oxidative.
    4. ...polysaccharides are made.
    1. ...makes energetically unfavorable processes more favorable.
    2. ...is usually the mechanism of making ATP.
    3. ...is necessary to make catabolic processes occur.
    4. ...occurs when NAD+ is produced.
    1. ...are multistep processes, each requiring a specific enzyme.
    2. ...occur in isolation in cells.
    3. ...always have a catabolic component.
    4. ...do not share molecules with each other.
    1. ...small molecules are essential for allosterism.
    2. ...allosterism involves phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.
    3. ...covalent modification cannot include any breaking of peptide bonds.
    4. ...sequestration is the primary means cells use.
    1. ...is a way to regulate a complete pathway.
    2. ...occurs when enzymes are covalently modified.
    3. ...requires ATP, ADP, or AMP.
    4. ...involves inactivation of the last enzyme of the pathway.
    1. ...has opposite effects on catabolic and anabolic pathways.
    2. ...is the same as feedback inhibition.
    3. ...always involves ATP, ADP, or AMP.
    4. ...reverses the direction of all enzymatic reactions in a pathway.

    Author of lecture Metabolism and Regulation

     Kevin Ahern, PhD

    Kevin Ahern, PhD

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