Metabolic Control of Enzyme Activity

by Kevin Ahern, PhD

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    Cells are control freaks; because they have to be control freaks. If they don't manage the chaos, the biochemistry going on inside of them, then they are likely to run out of energy or not have the energy they need in a critical circumstance. The way in which cells manage their biochemistry is through the phenomenon known as metabolic control and that will be the subject of this talk. In this presentation, I will go through first a background on the process and then talk about mechanisms of controlling enzyme activity. These include allosterism, covalent modification and control of enzyme synthesis or gene expression, as we have talked about before. Now metabolic control is essential. But it's important that we have our terms in agreement. The metabolic control that I am referring here to, refers to the mechanisms that a multicellular organism uses. So it's not the way that we breathe and it's not the way we run. But it's the way that our body response to the needs that's placed upon it. Metabolic control occurs at the cellular level; because, that's where all living processes occur. But it's manifested at the organismal level, as we shall see. The cues for metabolic control may arise in the brain, as part of the conscious process, or it may be rooted in physiology so, some examples of that. Adrenalin is something the fight or flight response that's initiated. Its initiate as part of an awareness that our brain becomes and this gives us an hormonal response. The cori cycle by contrast is an unconscious process that's managed between our liver and our muscle in response to exercise. The first mechanism I wanna talk about is allosteric control and I have discussed this in another presentation. So I'll move through it fairly quickly....

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Metabolic Control of Enzyme Activity by Kevin Ahern, PhD is from the course Metabolic Control. It contains the following chapters:

    • Metabolism Control: Background
    • Allosteric Control
    • Covalent Modification Control
    • Zymogens & Chemical Modifactions
    • Gene Expression Control

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Ribozyme catalysis
    2. Allosterism
    3. Zymogen activation
    4. Regulation of gene expression
    1. ...involves binding of a small molecule to the enzyme.
    2. ...acts to positively regulate enzymes, but not negatively.
    3. ...involves addition or removal of phosphates.
    4. ...is basically an on/off switch.
    1. ...is activated by aspartate.
    2. ...is allosterically regulated by its substrate, CTP.
    3. ...is feedback inhibited by ATP.
    4. ...is activated by CTP.
    1. ...flips into the T state when CTP binds to the regulatory site.
    2. ...flips into the R state when ATP binds to the catalytic site.
    3. ...flips into the T state when aspartate binds to the regulatory site.
    4. ...flips into the T state when CTP binds into the catalytic site.
    1. ...occurs when an end product of a pathway inhibits the first enzyme of the pathway.
    2. ...occurs when a substrate inhibits an enzyme from catalyzing a reaction.
    3. ...occurs when a regulator binds to a catalytic site of an enzyme.
    4. ...occurs when the first product of a pathway inhibits the last enzyme of the pathway.
    1. ...are activated by cleaving of peptide bonds.
    2. ...are inactivated by cleaving of peptide bonds.
    3. ...are inactivated by phosphorylation.
    4. ...are created by phosphorylation.
    1. ...is activated by trypsin.
    2. ...partly activates itself by cleaving disulfide bonds.
    3. ...is made in an active form and inactivated by enteropeptidase.
    4. ...activates all of the other proteases by cleaving peptide bonds.
    1. ...can have carboxylation blocked by warfarin.
    2. ...is inactivated by addition of an extra carboxyl group.
    3. ...gains the ability to bind calcium in a reaction requiring vitamin E.
    4. ...must lose its extra carboxyl group to be active.
    1. Nucleotide control
    2. Transcriptional control
    3. RNA stability control
    4. Translational control

    Author of lecture Metabolic Control of Enzyme Activity

     Kevin Ahern, PhD

    Kevin Ahern, PhD

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