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Metabolic Control: Advanced

by Kevin Ahern, PhD
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    A well oiled machine has hundreds of parts all working together in a unison to accomplish the functions of a machine. For a cell ideally metabolic control is working like a well oiled machine and that's the focus of this presentation. In this talk, I will discuss energy considerations relative to cellular needs, futile cycles, reciprocal regulation, the cori cycle, and finally, hormonal control, how everything integrates together. Now cells have needs for energy. There are times when they need to make ATP and there are times when they have plenty of ATP. Catabolic processes which are the break down processes, generate energy for cells and they harvest that energy in the form of ATP. Catabolic processes are ideally active in circumstances of low energy and inactive in circumstances of high energy, so as not to waste that energy. Anabolic processes are the opposite. They require input of energy and so it’s ideal if they are active when the high energy state of the cell exists such as when there is plenty of ATP. And they are inactive in circumstances of low energy when there is, of course, low ATP. Now one of the considerations that we have with metabolic pathway is that metabolic pathways that breakdown and make things, if they are occurring at the same time, it can cause problems for cells and we refer those problems as a futile cycle. We see on the screen the schematic pathway for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Now these two pathways overlap a lot and that one pathway is partly the reverse of the other pathway. We see the glycolysis direction moving down, as you can see here, and the gluconeogenesis pathway starts at the bottom and moves up. And with the exception of the oxaloacetate, shown in the bottom right of...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Metabolic Control: Advanced by Kevin Ahern, PhD is from the course Metabolic Control. It contains the following chapters:

    • Energy Consideration of Metabolic Control
    • Futile Cycle
    • Reciprocal Regulation
    • The Role of the Liver
    • Cori Cycle
    • Hormonal Control
    • Glycogen Metabolism
    • Summary Hormonal Control
    • Control of Fat Metabolism
    • Summary: Control of Enzyme Activity
    • The Role of Kinase A & Effect of Insulin
    • Summary Pathway Regulation

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. ...generate energy.
    2. ...include gluconeogenesis and glycogen breakdown.
    3. ...require NADH, FADH2, or NADPH.
    4. ...make big molecules from smaller ones.
    1. ...occurs when a catabolic and corresponding anabolic pathway are occurring simultaneously in a cell.
    2. ...are primary sources of ATP energy.
    3. ...is favored by reciprocal regulation.
    4. ...is common in cells.
    1. ...has opposite effects on catabolic and anabolic pathways.
    2. ...is a way to reverse processes in cells.
    3. ...is prevented with ATP.
    4. ...is controlled by regulating gene expression.
    1. muscles are going through fermentation due to lack of oxygen.
    2. ...liver has excess lactate.
    3. ...gluconeogenesis in muscle cells provides them with glucose for energy.
    4. ...glycolysis is going on mostly in liver cells to make ATP.
    1. ...adrenalin and insulin have opposite effects in the liver.
    2. ...adrenalin stimulates liver to absorb glucose from the bloodstream.
    3. ...insulin stimulates muscles to produce glucose when needed.
    4. ...adrenalin and insulin work together to reduce blood glucose levels.
    1. It is made by FBPase 2.
    2. It is made by PFK2.
    3. Insulin stimulates its production.
    4. It favors glycolysis by activating phosphofructokinase (PFK).
    1. ...is stimulated by insulin.
    2. ...is stimulated by glucagon.
    3. ...is stimulated by F2,6BP.
    4. ...is stimulated by adrenalin.
    1. ...it favors fatty acid synthesis.
    2. ...it stimulates FBPase2 to be active.
    3. ...it activates gluconeogenesis.
    4. ...it inhibits glycogen synthase.
    1. It favors glycolysis.
    2. It favors gluconeogenesis.
    3. It favors breakdown of fat.
    4. It favors glycogen breakdown.
    1. ...is converted into the T state by ATP.
    2. ...is converted into the T state by AMP.
    3. ...is converted into the R state by phosphorylation.
    4. ...is converted into the T state by glucose.
    1. Favors gluconeogenesis.
    2. Favors fatty acid synthesis.
    3. Favors glycogen synthesis.
    4. Favors reduction of glucose levels.

    Author of lecture Metabolic Control: Advanced

     Kevin Ahern, PhD

    Kevin Ahern, PhD


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