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Influenza A and Tuberculosis

by Jeremy Brown, PhD
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    So, the subject of this lecture are two other infectious diseases that affect the lungs which are of great importance. One is Influenza A and the other is Tuberculosis. So, discussing Influenza A in more detail- The importance of this disease is that it causes every year winter epidemics. In most people who have not got pre-existing disease or are relatively young it will be the cause of bronchitis often with marked systemic symptoms and cause what we call flu, and the patient maybe is off work for a couple of days but then recover. However, these winter epidemics also can cause exacerbations of chronic lung and cardiac disease in patients who have those problems, and that’s a very important cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition, Influenza A occasionally causes pandemics. The most famous being the one that occurred after World War I, which was estimated to have killed 20 million people. And the most recent one was the swine flu pandemic a few years ago. Influenza A is not just infection of humans, it also infects animals such as pigs and is very prevalent in birds; geese, duck and chickens for example. It’s an RNA virus, it’s coded in the surface membrane, and in that surface membrane are embedded two proteins: haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Those are important because the structure of those proteins defines the type of virus you have, and there are only three main structural types, which affect humans, that is H1N1, H1N2, H3N2. And most of the influenza that affects humans are some variations on those three types. As I mentioned the human types cause winter epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition to the non-human types of influenza A virus, you occasionally get infected with avian influenza. Now these are viral types that affect birds,...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Influenza A and Tuberculosis by Jeremy Brown, PhD is from the course Infections of the Respiratory Tract. It contains the following chapters:

    • Influenza virus
    • Subacute lung infections
    • Tuberculosis
    • Tuberculosis pathogenesis
    • Clinical manifestations and TB case histories
    • Diagnosis of tuberculosis
    • Treatment of tuberculosis
    • Outcome of TB
    • Summary tuberculosis

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Influenza is caused by a DNA virus.
    2. Many deaths are caused by exacerbation of chronic disease by influenza infection.
    3. Influenza can cause a severe pneumonia.
    4. All people over 65 years of age should be offered annual influenza vaccination
    1. RNA virus
    2. DNA virus
    3. Double stranded DNA virus
    4. Single-stranded DNA virus
    5. Retrovirus
    1. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
    2. Hemagglutinase and neuraminidase
    3. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidin
    4. Hemagglutinase and neuraminidin
    5. Hemopexin and neurminidase
    1. 120nm
    2. 150 nm
    3. 100nm
    4. 180nm
    5. 170nm
    1. Glycoprotein
    2. Mucoprotein
    3. Lipoprotein
    4. Mucopolysaccharide
    5. Adiponectin
    1. 8
    2. 10
    3. 12
    4. 6
    5. 14
    1. The histological hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is the presence of caseating granulomas.
    2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a rapidly growing bacteria.
    3. Most patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis have active disease.
    4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present in environmental water sources.
    1. High socioeconomic status
    2. Recent emigration from a developing country to an industrialised country
    3. Diabetes
    4. Smoking
    1. Massive haemoptysis
    2. Abdominal pain and distension
    3. Reduced conscious level
    4. Painless lump found on one side of the neck
    1. Sputum culture and microscopy
    2. Computed Tomography of the lungs
    3. Chest X ray
    4. Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) blood test
    1. The shortest recommended period of treatment is 6 months.
    2. Most patients can be treated successfully using only one or two drugs.
    3. Cure is unusual.
    4. Compliance with treatment is often difficult.

    Author of lecture Influenza A and Tuberculosis

     Jeremy Brown, PhD

    Jeremy Brown, PhD


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    TB lectures need improvement
    By Hamed S. on 27. March 2017 for Influenza A and Tuberculosis

    The TB lectures can be improved, In particular the approach to dx of a pt with suspected TB and in particular when you would consider tissue biopsy. Also the approach to dx of latent tb isn't clear. E,g performing a chest x-ray in high risk patient populations followed by mantoux testing. No mention of what size reaction is considered positive in different population ie immunosuppressed healthcare workers and the general population. The lecture discusses the treatment of active tb but no discussion of treating latent TB. No mention of when you would treat contacts of the index case. Finally serious side effects of TB treatment were not adequately covered. Isoniazid (need for B6 to decrease risk of peripheral neuropathy and megaloblastic anaemia) rifampicin and liver toxicity and drug interactions, ethambutol and occular toxicities and need for monitoring of visual fields and pyrazinamide (hepatoxicity).