Menstrual disorders are very common in female patients. In adolescents, they can be the cause of a significant amount of stress to both the patient and their parents. Variations of the menstrual cycle among this age group are broad and mainly caused by the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Amenorrhea (either primary or secondary), abnormal uterine bleeding, and dysmenorrhea are conditions that require careful evaluation through a stepwise and logical manner.
Primary amenorrhea refers to the condition when menarche fails to occur, while secondary amenorrhea is the cessation of menses once they have begun. The occurrence of irregular, prolonged or heavy abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most urgent gynecological problems in adolescence, and the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding should be given only when all other organic and structural causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding have been ruled out.
Dysmenorrhea refers to painful menstruation and is the most common reason for which a female patient may refer to a gynecologist. It is characterized as primary in the absence of an underlying organic disease, and as secondary when there is evidence of pelvic pathology. Appropriate and early management of the patient is necessary to minimize the possibility of future complications regarding a woman's reproductive ability.
Concise and Clear first introduction to menstrual disorders, presentation, definitions, guidelines and salient information for management,
I like this material Professor was very nice Good lectures
Because I like the way the teacher teaches. Her way teaching makes me want to learn more. Thank to the teacher.
Very hard to follow. It is a shame since it is an important subject for the OBGYN rotation. The lecture should be more structured between the subject. It would be beneficial to follow a more classical approach, so we can properly follow. i.e. : 1st present primary amenorrhoea, the secondary. After that, have a few lectures on individual entities (Pathophysiology ? Presentation ? Diagnostic ? Management). Then finish with a lecture to differentiate the differential diagnostic. I really tried to give the course a chance, but it is a mess to follow, and I had to consult other sources to understand key differences between the diagnosis.