Water Balance: Hypo- and Hypernatremia

Water Balance: Hypo- and Hypernatremia

by Amy Sussman, MD

Serum sodium concentration is largely determined by the balance of the body’s sodium and water content. Hyponatremia results when total body water exceeds total body sodium (relative to baseline), whereas hypernatremia is the result of decreased total body water relative to sodium. Prompt recognition of these states can prevent complications in the central nervous system, such as brain edema in hyponatremic patients and cerebrovascular hemorrhages in hypernatremic patients.

Usually, diagnosis relies on thorough history-taking, a physical examination that focuses on volume assessment, and laboratory evaluation that includes serum osmolality, urine osmolality, and urine sodium concentration. The treatment of hypo- or hypernatremia depends heavily on the acuity and specific classification of the type of disturbance (e.g., hypovolemic vs. euvolemic vs. hypervolemic). The management of either condition requires regularly monitoring of serum sodium concentrations to ensure adequate treatment and to avoid potential complications.

Course Details

  • Videos 14
  • Duration 0:58 h
  • Quiz questions 30
  • Concept Pages 7


Your Educators of course Water Balance: Hypo- and Hypernatremia

 Amy Sussman, MD

Amy Sussman, MD

Dr. Amy Sussman is an Associate Professor of Medicine and the Vice Chair of Education in the Department of Medicine of the University of Arizona (UA), USA.
She obtained her MD from the University of Arizona in 2001 and completed residency and a Nephrology Fellowship at the University of Washington. Dr. Sussman was recruited back to the UA in 2009 and also serves as her department's clerkship director, and as the program director of the UA Nephrology Fellowship.
Because of her strong emphasis on medical student teaching, she has been distinguished with multiple teaching awards in the UA College of Medicine.
Within Lecturio, Dr. Sussman teaches courses on Nephrology.

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Lecturio never fails!
By Koriante R. on 30. March 2022 for Hypovolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia

Dr. Sussman does a wonderful job explaining a very convoluted topic!

nice explain
By Muqeet K. on 27. September 2021 for Renal Case: 39-year-old Woman with Type 2 DM

nice explain and she explein the topic i a way that is easy to understand

By Muhammed B. on 20. September 2021 for Water Balance: Hypo- and Hypernatremia

Amazing, simple but detailed, great lecturer, she made the all difficult Nephrology an enjoyable informative breeze. Thanks Dr. Sussman.

More questions, more learning
By alireza z. on 09. July 2020 for Water Balance: Hypo- and Hypernatremia

Hi It was a good course but not complete because it has not enough questions in it's quiz. I wish I can watch the complete course. Thank you