Hypoximia & Hypercapnia

by Thad Wilson, PhD

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    Hello! In this lecture, we’re going to cover hypoxemias and hypercapneas. And our learning goals will be pretty diffused, but we’ll cover them one by one. And that is the arterial venous and then alveolar to arterial O2 gradient. We’ll then describe hypoxia, which is different than hypoxemias, and their potential difference and underlying mechanisms. We’ll predict the mechanisms of hypoxemias and we’ll be able to go through some clinical scenarios and some actual test data that will able to highlight these particular principles. And then finally, we’re going to go through the relationship between alveolar ventilation and hypercapneas. So there’s a lot of hypo- and hypers- today, but if it has to do with –oxia, that’s oxygen and –capneas with CO2. Let’s go through now what normally, when you breathe in air, what the different O2s and CO2s are. So when you breath in dry air at sea level, your PO2 will be about 160 millimeters of mercury. And you might ask, “How in the world do I know that?” You take barometric pressure times the percent of fraction of O2 in the air. So it’s about 20.93 or we oftentimes round it to 21%. CO2 is very low in atmospheric air. Now once you humidify air, there’s a decrease in the PO2. And this doesn’t mean that the amount of O2 has changed in the air, it's still 21%. But we have to account for the amount of water of vapor and humidify the air. Because by the time you get air from the mouth all the way down to the alveoli, there is about 99.5% saturation of that air. And we have to account for that and that accounts for about 47 millimeters of mercury and that difference of 47 millimeters of mercury lowers the PO2 to...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Hypoximia & Hypercapnia by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Respiratory Physiology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Hypoximia & Hypercapnia
    • Alveolar Gas Equation
    • Practice Calculation
    • Tissue Hypoxia - Causes
    • Diffusional Impairment
    • Ventilation to Perfusion Inequality
    • Upright Lung
    • Learning Outcomes

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Humidified tracheal air
    2. Alveolar air
    3. Arterial blood
    4. Mixed venous blood
    1. Increased surface area
    2. Increased diffusional distance
    3. Lower partial pressure gradient
    4. Lower gas solubility
    1. Carbon monoxide
    2. Carbon dioxide
    3. Oxygen
    4. Nitrous oxide
    1. Zone 2
    2. Zone 1
    3. Zone 3
    4. Zone 4
    1. Ventilation
    2. Ventilation to perfusion ratio
    3. Dead space
    4. Partial pressure of oxygen
    1. Partial pressure of oxygen
    2. Blood flow
    3. Ventilation
    4. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide

    Author of lecture Hypoximia & Hypercapnia

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD

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