Lipid Metabolism: Fat & Fatty Acids

by Kevin Ahern, PhD

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    As I have indicated in previous lectures, the lipids are an incredibly diverse set of molecules. But as we will see they have very common roots and very simple molecule. In this lecture I will start that process by talking about fat and fatty acid metabolism. Now fat metabolism is something that all of us wanna do if we can if we are worried too much of how much we carrying around. So first I wanna talk about fat breakdown. Fats and oils are, as we have seen, triglycerides, and fat is stored in our body in specialized cells called adipocytes. The fat is important to travel in our blood stream but it's also a difficult way to travel; because, it's not water soluble whereas our blood actually is mostly aqueous solution. So to travel in the blood stream fat must go through complexes called lipoprotein complexes and you probably known as the LDLs and chylomicrons. Fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, its constituent components, by the action of enzymes called lipases. You can see on the screen a typical fat molecule. It has a glycerol backbone, as shown here, and you can see ester bonds between all the fatty acids and the glycerol. Now each of those individual fatty acids are targets of action of different lipases. The first one is shown on the top is a target of enzyme known as hormone sensitive lipase and it will cleave only the first fatty acid. The second fatty acid was cleaved by an enzyme called diacylglycerol lipase. and the third enzyme is cleaved off by an enzyme called monoacylglycerol lipase. The product of that is a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. If we are moving to make a fat then it's the not simple reversal of...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Lipid Metabolism: Fat & Fatty Acids by Kevin Ahern, PhD is from the course Lipid Metabolism. It contains the following chapters:

    • Breakdown & Syntheses of Fat
    • Beta Oxidation of Fatty Acids
    • Oxidation of Unsaturated & Other Fatty Acid
    • Fatty Acid Synthesis
    • Other Fatty Acid Syntheses

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. ..are broken down by lipases.
    2. ...travel freely in the bloodstream.
    3. ...usually have all fatty acids saturated.
    4. ...are stored in all cells.
    1. It breaks off three carbon pieces and converts them to acetyl-CoAs.
    2. It occurs in mitochondria and peroxisomes.
    3. It generates more ATP per carbon than sugars.
    4. It is chemically similar to the reverse of fatty acid synthesis.
    1. ...carnitine is on the fatty acid as it crosses the mitochondrial membrane.
    2. ...they are first attached to ACP.
    3. ...they are first removed from carnitine.
    4. ...Co-A is removed from the fatty acid and replaced with carnitine in the mitochondrion.
    1. ...protons and electrons are removed.
    2. ...water is added.
    3. ...NADH is produced.
    4. ...A cis-intermediate is created.
    1. ...a double bond is destroyed.
    2. ...an intermediate in the D configuration is created.
    3. ...a ketone is created.
    4. ...a trans intermediate is created.
    1. ...a ketone is produced.
    2. ...an alcohol is produced.
    3. ...a cis-double bond is produced.
    4. ...a trans-double bond is produced.
    1. ...catalyzes a readily reversible reaction in fatty acid oxidation.
    2. ...catalyzes removal of CoA-SH.
    3. ...requires ATP.
    4. ...is important in fatty acid synthesis.
    1. ...long chain fatty acids are preferentially oxidized.
    2. ...trans fatty acids are preferentially oxidized.
    3. ...cis fatty acids are preferentially oxidized.
    4. ...short chain fatty acids are preferentially oxidized.
    1. ...occurs predominantly in the cytoplasm.
    2. ...occurs predominantly in the mitochondrion.
    3. ...occurs predominantly in peroxisomes.
    4. ...occurs predominantly in membranes.
    1. It uses carnitine.
    2. It uses acyl carrier protein (ACP).
    3. It uses NADPH.
    4. It uses a three carbon intermediate.
    1. ...catalyzes formation of malonyl-CoA.
    2. ...catalyzes an important decarboxylation.
    3. ...requires NAD+.
    4. ...requires FAD.
    1. ...is activated by citrate.
    2. ...is activated by phosphorylation.
    3. ...is activated by AMP.
    4. ...is activated by long chain fatty acids.
    1. ...the last step is hydrogenation.
    2. ...it finishes with production of an 18 carbon fatty acid.
    3. ...it requires NADH for electrons.
    4. ...it has an L-form alcohol during the process.
    1. ...has multiple enzymatic activities.
    2. ...is present in the mitochondrion.
    3. ...is only found in human cells.
    4. ...catalyzes only the last reaction of the process.
    1. ...the delta system numbers starting at the carboxyl end.
    2. ...the omega system numbers starting at the carboxyl end.
    3. ...mammals can’t make double bonds past omega-9.
    4. ...mammals can’t make delta-9 double bonds.

    Author of lecture Lipid Metabolism: Fat & Fatty Acids

     Kevin Ahern, PhD

    Kevin Ahern, PhD

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