Vascular Malformations

by Joseph Alpert, MD

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    Welcome back to Vascular Medicine – Advanced. In this segment, we’re going to discuss vascular malformations. Almost all of these are congenital and they’re noticed in early childhood. And indeed very few of these ever come to the attention of an adult cardiologist or an adult cardiac surgeon. They’re almost always taken care of by pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. We’ll go through the various types though for completeness sake. We’ll talk about the definition of the various vascular malformations. We’ll talk about the difference between hemangiomas and so-called non-neoplastic – that is non-cancerous – vascular malformations. And we’ll come up with some examples. So let’s start with the definition. Vascular malformations are developmental abnormalities of the vascular system. They involve systems that can be shown as dilated capillaries, as dilated venules or as dilated small arteries. And the taxonomy – that is the classification – differs depending upon which blood vessels are involved. So here is the overall definitions and categorizations of vascular malformations. The most common are, as you see, hemangiomas. These are often seen as we’ll talk in a moment in young children. Often, they’re noticed at birth. And they gradually involute with time, that is they disappear. And they’re totally benign. Of the non-neoplastic vascular malformations – that is the non-cancerous ones – there are some that can actually cause quite severe illness. One can have an AV malformation. That is an arterial venous connection in the brain that leaks and bleeds and can cause strokes or seizures. Another form of these non-neoplastic vascular malformations is a cavernoma, which is a variety of tangled blood vessels that’s fed by the artery and the vein and usually a more discreet lesion. These can also bleed often in the brain and can also cause seizures and strokes. One can...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Vascular Malformations by Joseph Alpert, MD is from the course Vascular Malformations. It contains the following chapters:

    • Vascular malformations - Definition
    • Non-neoplastic vascular malformations
    • Cavernomas
    • Congenital vascular malfunctions of the aorta
    • Congenital vascular diseases - Summary

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Often associated with malignant melanoma
    2. Is usually benign and usually disappears as the child ages
    3. Affects endothelial cells that line blood vessels
    4. A hemangioma contains an Increased number of normal or abnormal vessels filled with blood
    1. Cavernoma
    2. Arteriovenous malformation
    3. Hemangioma
    4. Spleen
    1. Auditory hallucinations
    2. Cerebral hemorrhage
    3. Seizures
    4. Progressive neurologic deficit

    Author of lecture Vascular Malformations

     Joseph Alpert, MD

    Joseph Alpert, MD

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