Lectures

Vascular Disease & Arrhythmia

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    Welcome back ladies and gentlemen here we take a look vascular diseases. Now, what we are not covering is a vascular disease in great detail because that is not what this lecture series is about. In fact, it is about arrhythmias. Under arrhythmias, we had two categories or classifications. We had those that were dealing with conduction system diseases and under conducting system diseases and dysarrythmias, we looked at those four major atrial issues and SVTs and we looked at ventricular arrythmias. We are now going to move into our vascular disease portion where will take a look at in great detail peripheral vascular diseases either due to perhaps venous insufficiency, peripheral arterial disease, and aortic dissection. That will then complete the entire picture of arrythmias in totality. Peripheral vascular disease in general terms. Well, what if there is venous insufficiency? What does that mean? Your valves, the one way valves and which it allows the blood to be guaranteed to move forward is not occurring. The valves might be incompetent and if they are, remember, for example, think about your leg and the veins down there and how do you get them up into the heart? How do you move it forward? Ambulation, movement in between the muscles there is squeezing ensuring that the blood is moving forward. But what if the valves aren't working properly? Resulting in venous insufficiency. What is my topic? Peripheral vascular disease specifically under the classification of arrythmia. Then peripheral arterial disease. What may then cause this? Well peripheral arterial disease, there might be a disease within the artery which is then causing it to narrow. Where? Down in the periphery. How would you know, what kind of tests that you need to conduct so that you know for sure that you are dealing...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Vascular Disease & Arrhythmia by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Arrythmias. It contains the following chapters:

    • PAD: Definition
    • PAD: Pathogenesis
    • PAD: Signs & Symptoms
    • PAD: Diagnosis
    • Aortic Dissection: Pathogenesis
    • Aortic Dissection: Signs & Symptoms

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Brownish discoloration of skin
    2. Edema
    3. Varicosities
    4. Tissue necrosis
    5. Pain
    1. Atherosclerosis
    2. Obesity
    3. Lymphatic obstruction
    4. Varicose veins
    5. Diabetes mellitus type 2
    1. All are correct.
    2. Simulates venous compression by muscles.
    3. None are correct.
    4. Helps to avoid development of thrombosis.
    5. Forces blood to move against gravity.
    1. Atheromas of the extremities
    2. Diabetic neuropathy
    3. Lymphatic obstruction
    4. Varicose veins
    5. Hypertension
    1. Pain at rest
    2. Gangrene
    3. Loss of pulses
    4. Cold, clammy skin
    5. Ischemic ulcerations
    1. Peripheral neuropathy
    2. Patient characteristics
    3. Susceptibility for infection
    4. Medication interaction
    5. High glucose levels
    1. ABI < 0.90
    2. ABI > 0.5
    3. ABI > 0.90
    4. ABI > 1.5
    5. 0.9 < ABI < 1.3
    1. Autoimmune vasculitis
    2. Smoking
    3. Hypertension
    4. Dyslipidemia
    5. Glucose control
    1. All are potential explanations.
    2. Non-compressible calcified artery
    3. Testing error
    4. Diabetes mellitus
    5. End stage renal disease
    1. Posterior tibialis and brachial artery.
    2. Most distal pulses measurable from the upper and lower extremities respectively.
    3. Posterior tibialis and radial artery.
    4. Dorsalis pedis and radial artery.
    5. Dorsalis pedis and brachial artery.
    1. Intima, media, adventitia
    2. Media, intima, adventitia
    3. Adventitia, media, intima
    4. Intima, adventitia, media
    5. Media, adventitia, intima
    1. They guide treatment based on the direction of the dissection.
    2. They are based on anatomic location of the initial tear.
    3. Type A presents acutely, while type B presents chronically.
    4. Type A involves a true lumen, and type B involves a false lumen.
    5. They have different etiologies.
    1. Chest computed tomography
    2. Aortography
    3. Transesophageal echocardiogram
    4. Computed tomography angiogram
    5. Transthoracic Echocardiogram
    1. Emergency surgical correction
    2. IV esmolol
    3. IV digoxin
    4. IV morphine
    5. IV nitroprusside
    1. Decrease shearing forces.
    2. Decrease heart rate.
    3. Manage hypotension.
    4. Prevent cardiac ischemia.
    5. Increase cardiac output.

    Author of lecture Vascular Disease & Arrhythmia

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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