Surgical pathology of tumors involves looking at cancer cells under a microscope to determine their grading and staging. The pathologic grade of a tumor is determined solely based on microscopic findings associated with carcinogenesis. It also offers insight into the classification and naming of a tumor. The clinical stage of a tumor, established before initiation of therapy, depends on physical examination, laboratory findings, and imaging studies. Tumor stage is not concerned with the microscopic appearance of the cancer as much as the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body. Tumor stage is also currently one of the main drivers of treatment decisions and is therefore vital for for physicians to understand.
Great lecture by Dr. Mitchell. Clear, concise, and easy to understand.