Principles of Neoplasia and Carcinogenesis

Principles of Neoplasia and Carcinogenesis

by Carlo Raj, MD

Many steps are required to convert a normally functioning cell into a malignant one. The cancer cell must be able to multiply under conditions that a normal cell would not, as well as to invade surrounding tissue and spread throughout the body. Both genetic changes (e.g., the activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes) and epigenetic changes (e.g., the stimulation of cell proliferation) contribute to the development of cancers.

Carcinogenesis is a complex interplay of simultaneous and stepwise processes, including any combination of genetic, biologic, chemical, and environmental factors. Generally, carcinogenesis can be subdivided into three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. Initiation is a result of some irreversible genetic alteration, which may be a mutation, transversion, transition, and/or small deletion in DNA. Promotion, considered to be reversible, has no basis in structural DNA alterations but does involve alterations in promoter-receptor interactions that mediate changes in genome expression. Progression is the final and irreversible stage of carcinogenesis, which is characterized by malignant growth. This pathway often involves the activation of proto-oncogenes and oncogenes, as well as the downregulation of tumor suppressor genes.

New research into carcinogenesis is prolific, and although many of what are thought to be the most important gene targets in carcinogenesis have been elucidated, it is likely we are nowhere near defining the total group of molecular alterations that lead to neoplasia.

Course Details

  • Videos 27
  • Duration 2:54 h
  • Quiz questions 98
  • Concept Pages 5


Your Educators of course Principles of Neoplasia and Carcinogenesis

 Carlo Raj, MD

Carlo Raj, MD

Dr. Carlo Raj is a Physician and Lecturer at Becker’s Healthcare, in Illinois, USA, and the CEO and founder of Indus Intellect Virtual MedEd, a medical education consulting company.
He obtained his MD from Medical University of the Americas (MUA) and is an international lecturer and public speaker.
Within Lecturio, Dr. Raj teaches courses on Pathology.

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not worthy
By Valentina v. on 26. October 2021 for Paraneoplastic Endocrinopathies – Carcinogenesis

cannot understand a word. info given are too summary and unconnected

Excellent explanation
By Eva G. on 03. August 2021 for Ultraviolet Radiation: Excision Repair & Carcinogen – Carcinogenesis

Great explanation, It's great how the lecturer takes the time to guide our mental process. He´s so far my favorite lecturer.

Not to take the content seriously.
By Renan A. on 09. January 2021 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

Very annoying style of presentation. I do Cancer research for a living in the USA and I found a lot of problems with this presentation.

By Kadir Timucin G. on 29. February 2020 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

the way he explains , dat is funny. I see some nerds didnt like the lecture, meh get a life "nerds" :D