Principles of Neoplasia and Carcinogenesis

Principles of Neoplasia and Carcinogenesis

by Carlo Raj, MD

Many steps are required to convert a normal cell into a cancerous one. The cancer cell must be able to multiply under conditions that a normal cell would not and to invade surrounding tissue and spread throughout the body. Both genetic changes (e.g., the activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes) and epigenetic changes (e.g., the stimulation of cell proliferation) contribute to the development of cancers.

Carcinogenesis may result from the action of any one or a combination of chemical, physical, biologic, and/or genetic insults to cells. The process of carcinogenesis may be divided into at least three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. The first stage of carcinogenesis, initiation, results from an irreversible genetic alteration, most likely one or more simple mutations, transversions, transitions, and/or small deletions in DNA. The reversible stage of promotion does not involve changes in the structure of DNA but rather in the expression of the genome mediated through promoter-receptor interactions. The final, irreversible stage of progression is characterized by karyotypic instability and malignant growth. Critical molecular targets during the stages of carcinogenesis include proto-oncogenes, cellular oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes, alterations in both alleles of the latter being found only in the stage of progression. Although many of these critical target genes have been identified, the ultimate number and characteristics of molecular alterations that define neoplasia have not been elucidated.

Course Details

  • Videos 27
  • Duration 2:54 h
  • Quiz questions 98
  • Concept Pages 5


Your Educators of course Principles of Neoplasia and Carcinogenesis

 Carlo Raj, MD

Carlo Raj, MD

Dr. Carlo Raj is a Physician and Lecturer at Becker’s Healthcare, in Illinois, USA, and the CEO and founder of Indus Intellect Virtual MedEd, a medical education consulting company.
He obtained his MD from Medical University of the Americas (MUA) and is an international lecturer and public speaker.
Within Lecturio, Dr. Raj teaches courses on Pathology.

User reviews

4,3 of 5 stars
5 Stars
4 Stars
3 Stars
2 Stars
1  Star
not worthy
By Valentina v. on 26. October 2021 for Paraneoplastic Endocrinopathies – Carcinogenesis

cannot understand a word. info given are too summary and unconnected

Excellent explanation
By Eva G. on 03. August 2021 for Ultraviolet Radiation: Excision Repair & Carcinogen – Carcinogenesis

Great explanation, It's great how the lecturer takes the time to guide our mental process. He´s so far my favorite lecturer.

Not to take the content seriously.
By Renan A. on 09. January 2021 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

Very annoying style of presentation. I do Cancer research for a living in the USA and I found a lot of problems with this presentation.

By Kadir Timucin G. on 29. February 2020 for Neoplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor and Cancer: Differentiating Definitions– Neoplasia

the way he explains , dat is funny. I see some nerds didnt like the lecture, meh get a life "nerds" :D