Lectures

Pericardial Disease: Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Pericardial Disease: Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Pericardial Disease. It contains the following chapters:

    • Pericardial Effusion & Cardiac Tamponade
    • Pathogenesis
    • Signs & Symptoms
    • Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade: Causes
    • Pulsus Paradoxus
    • Diagnosis

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. New onset holosystolic murmur
    2. Early cyanosis
    3. Cardiogenic shock
    4. Pericardial effusion
    5. Cardiac tamponade
    1. It must be a hemorrhagic effusion.
    2. It may lead to cardiac tamponade.
    3. It causes a diastolic dysfunction.
    4. Pericardial sac can expand to contain over a liter of fluid before tamponade occurs.
    5. It is defined as an increase in the amount of fluid in the pericardial sac of the heart.
    1. It causes a systolic dysfunction
    2. It is a life-threatening medical emergency without treatment
    3. It causes a filling defect on both sides of the heart.
    4. Cardiac tamponade may occur with as little as 200 mL of fluid
    5. It is the end-stage of pericardial effusion
    1. Traumatic blood loss – Distributive
    2. Bacterial infection – distributive shock
    3. Heart pump failure – cardiogenic shock
    4. Dehydration – hypovolemic shock
    5. Bee sting – distributive shock
    1. Distended neck veins
    2. Hypertension
    3. Pulsus paradoxus
    4. High voltage EKG
    5. Incontinence
    1. Decreased right ventricular filling
    2. Systemic venoconstriction
    3. Pump failure
    4. Constriction of the pulmonary capillaries
    5. Increased afterload
    1. Ventricular aneurysm rupture
    2. Interventricular septal rupture
    3. Hypothyroidism
    4. Tuberculosis infection
    5. Breast Cancer
    1. Tuberculosis
    2. Hypothyroidism
    3. Coxsackie virus infection
    4. Systemic lupus erythematosis
    5. Uremia
    1. Increased blood flow to the left ventricle
    2. Heart rate rises
    3. Drop in Systolic BP
    4. Widening of A2-P2 split
    5. All are true
    1. Fall of systolic blood pressure by greater than 10 mmHg on inspiration
    2. Fall of systolic blood pressure by greater than 15 mmHg on inspiration
    3. Rise of systolic blood pressure by greater than 5 mmHg on inspiration
    4. Fall of systolic blood pressure by greater than 20 mmHg on inspiration
    5. Rise of systolic blood pressure by greater than 10 mmHg on inspiration
    1. Both present with a pericardial friction rub.
    2. Both involve the pericardial sac covering the heart
    3. Both cause muffled heart sounds
    4. Both may present with elevated jugular venous distention
    5. Both may be caused by Coxsackie virus infection
    1. Alternating large and small QRS complexes
    2. Widened QRS duration
    3. Wavy P waves
    4. Peaked T waves
    5. Delta waves
    1. Flattened neck veins
    2. Decrease of systolic BP by > 10 mmHg on inspiration
    3. Low voltage EKG
    4. Electrical alternans on EKG
    5. Collapse of ventricle during systole on Echo
    1. Echocardiography
    2. Chest radiograph
    3. Electrocardiogram
    4. Magnetic resonance imaging
    5. Computed tomography

    Author of lecture Pericardial Disease: Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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