Carbohydrate Metabolism: Glycolysis & Pyruvate Metabolism

by Kevin Ahern, PhD

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    Carbohydrates are essential energy sources for almost every cell on the face of the earth. So it's essential to understand then the biochemistry/metabolism of these important compounds. This lecture will focus on probably the most important carbohydrate and that's glucose. Glucose is broken down in a pathway called glycolysis which will be subject of the first part of the talk and then I will finish with the end product of glycolysis which is pyruvate and how it's metabolized further and how that impacts fermentation. Now in glycolysis we have the breakdown of glucose then glycolysis literally means the breakdown of glucose. Glyco referring to the glucose part and lysis referring to the breakdown. Glycolysis is a primary energy source for cells but it's not within the pathway itself overly energetic, and as we will see what glycolysis is important for is providing its end products for further oxidation. Glycolysis is what we call a central metabolic pathway. Now central metabolic pathway means that it feeds into so many other pathways and if we pull this pathway out of a cell, it would mean the cell would really have to rearrange everything that it does. The reactions of glycolysis occur in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Glycolysis occurs in what we call two phases. Our first phase in which ATP energy must actually be put into molecules to start the process. The ATP would be recovered later in the second part of glycolysis where additional ATPs are made, reduced electron carriers are made and two pyruvates are also made. Pyruvates is our connecting point for other pathways and the oxidation of pyruvates generates a tremendous amount of energy. Now glucose's structure is seen on the right here. In the body, it's stored, at least in animals, it's stored in the form...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Carbohydrate Metabolism: Glycolysis & Pyruvate Metabolism by Kevin Ahern, PhD is from the course Carbohydrate Metabolism. It contains the following chapters:

    • Outline Biochemestry of Carbohydrates & Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis: Glucose -> G6P
    • Glycolysis: G6P -> F6P
    • Glycolysis: F6P -> F1,6BP
    • Glycolysis: F1,6P -> DHAP
    • Glycolysis: DHAP -> GA3P
    • Glycolysis: GA3P -> 1,3 BPG
    • Glycolysis: 1,3 BPG -> 3-PG
    • Glycolysis: 3-PG -> 2-PG
    • Pyruvate Kinase & Summary Glycolysis
    • Fate of Pyruvate

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. ...NADH is produced.
    2. ...multiple oxidations give the energy the pathway is known for.
    3. ...glucose is converted to one molecule of pyruvate.
    4. ...ADP is required to start the process.
    1. It is catabolized in gluconeogenesis.
    2. It travels easily in the blood.
    3. It is stored in polymers in the body.
    4. It is made from simple precursors.
    1. ...requires ATP in the reaction it catalyzes.
    2. ...is a non-regulated enzyme of glycolysis.
    3. ...catalyzes a reaction with a positive Gibbs free energy change.
    4. ...catalyzes an isomerization.
    1. ...the reaction is readily reversible.
    2. ...G6P is converted to F6P using energy from ATP.
    3. ...regulators include G6P and F2,6BP.
    4. ...the enzyme is a kinase.
    1. PFK activity is activated by ATP.
    2. It is an important regulatory enzyme for the glycolysis pathway.
    3. It converts F6P to F1,6BP.
    4. PFK activity is activated by AMP.
    5. PFK activity is inhibited by high concentrations of ADP.
    1. ...is activated by AMP.
    2. ...has one binding site for ATP.
    3. ...is activated by ATP and F2,6BP.
    4. ...is feedback inhibited.
    1. ...one six carbon molecule is split into two molecules of three carbons each.
    2. ..the reaction is energetically very favorable.
    3. ...the reaction can be reversed thanks to pulling and pushing.
    4. ...accumulation of F1,6BP inhibits the enzyme.
    1. Is the only molecule in glycolysis that gets oxidized
    2. ...is made in glycolysis from 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate (1,3 BPG).
    3. ...is converted to 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate using energy from ATP.
    4. ...requires NADH to be oxidized.
    1. ...results in a substrate level phosphorylation.
    2. ...is catalyzed by phosphoglycerate mutase.
    3. ...is the only oxidation in glycolysis.
    4. ...is not very energetically favorable.
    1. ...can be produced from 1,3 BPG and 3 phosphoglycerate.
    2. ...is a glycolysis intermediate.
    3. ...binds to myoglobin.
    4. ...favors uptake of oxygen by oxygen proteins.
    1. ...is a very high energy compound.
    2. ...is made from 2 phosphoglycerate by addition of water.
    3. ...is a feedback inhibitor of aldolase.
    4. ...requires ATP to be produced.
    1. The reaction it catalyzes is readily reversible.
    2. It is both the last enzyme of glycolysis and a regulated enzyme of glycolysis.
    3. It catalyzes a substrate-level phosphorylation.
    4. The reaction it catalyzes releases a large amount of energy.
    1. ...must be regulated for gluconeogenesis to function.
    2. ...is inactivated by a molecule produced earlier in glycolysis.
    3. ...is activated by ATP and alanine.
    4. ...is active in gluconeogenesis.
    1. ...is made into lactate during fermentation.
    2. ...is converted into acetyl-CoA when oxygen is limiting.
    3. ...uses NADH to produce acetaldehyde.
    4. ...is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
    1. It requires alcohol dehydrogenase.
    2. It occurs when cells are short of oxygen.
    3. It occurs when cells are short of NAD+.
    4. It has different products in bacteria and humans.

    Author of lecture Carbohydrate Metabolism: Glycolysis & Pyruvate Metabolism

     Kevin Ahern, PhD

    Kevin Ahern, PhD

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