Arterial Diseases – Hypertension

by Joseph Alpert, MD

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    Hello! I’m Joseph Alpert with advanced vascular medicine. This segment we'll discuss one of the commonest forms of vascular disease: arterial hypertension. Here’s an example. We often like to start off with an example of a patient. This was a very, very famous patient who, in fact, died of complications of hypertension. This was in a time when there wasn’t very much effective therapy for hypertension. You can see it’s in the 1940s. And you can see that there were a number of events that occurred along the way. And of course this famous patient was President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had very poorly-controlled blood pressure and, eventually, died secondary to a ruptured blood vessel in his brain – a cerebral hemorrhage. Fortunately, we see a lot less of this these days because of the effective therapy for hypertension. And in this lecture we’re going to be talking about what causes hypertension and how it is treated, particularly these days where we have many very effective treatments. The definition of hypertension is: a chronic increase in blood pressure generally agreed upon as greater than 140/90 mm Hg. 140 is the systolic blood pressure. 90 is the diastolic pressure. In very elderly patients these days, we’re allowing blood pressures as much as 150 systolic because of stiffening of the arteries with age. Another definition of hypertension of course is if the patient has had high blood pressure diagnosed in the past and is currently receiving antihypertensive medications. Hypertension results from increased vascular resistance. Let’s think about that for a moment. Remember the formula for blood pressure is the same as the formula for measuring resistance or voltage in an electrical current. The voltage in an electrical current = resistance × flow. In other words, the amps × resistance. In the cardiovascular...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Arterial Diseases – Hypertension by Joseph Alpert, MD is from the course Arterial Diseases. It contains the following chapters:

    • Hypertension - Example
    • Hypertension - Definition
    • Hypertension - Pathogenesis
    • Central nervous system
    • Renin Angiotensin-System
    • Hypertension - Etiology
    • Hypertension - Symptoms
    • Hypertension - Epidermiology
    • Hypertension - Summary

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Peripheral resistance
    2. Stroke volume
    3. Capillary diffusion capacity
    4. Interstitial edema volume
    1. Essential and secondary
    2. Initial and Subsequent
    3. Complicated and essential
    4. Primary and rebound
    1. Adrenal insufficiency
    2. Congestive heart failure
    3. Chronic renal failure
    4. Stroke
    1. Central nervous system and humoral
    2. Muscular and fibrotic
    3. Splenic and tonsillar
    4. Vascular and lymphatic

    Author of lecture Arterial Diseases – Hypertension

     Joseph Alpert, MD

    Joseph Alpert, MD

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